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Does Vitamin K Help Osteoporosis

Low Vitamin D Levels In Epidemiological Studies Of Vitamin A And Osteoporosis

How Vitamin K2 can help Osteoporosis and Cardiovascular disease

Although Michaelsson and Melhus did not report the vitamin D intake of the Uppsala men and women whom they studied in either of their two reports associating vitamin A with osteoporosis, they authored another report on a different subject, studying women of Uppsala and the adjacent county, Vastmanland, in which they reported vitamin D intakes organized by quintile of calcium intake. The women in the lowest quintile of calcium intake consumed an average of only 97 IU of vitamin D per day, while the women in the highest quintile of calcium intake consumed an average of only 185 IU of vitamin D per day.24 Thus, at a latitude that spends the preponderance of the year covered under the dusk of a vitamin D winter, the residents of Uppsala are consuming between one twentieth and one fortieth of what is required to maintain optimal serum levels of vitamin D.

The majority of epidemiological studies investigating the hypothesized link between vitamin A and osteoporosis have not reported vitamin D levels. What little data we can glean from the few that have, however, suggests that the relative amounts of vitamins A and D may be more important than the amount of vitamin A alone.

Just as the higher quality studies demonstrate a relationship between vitamin A and osteoporosis, the higher quality studies among those that report both vitamin A status and vitamin D status demonstrate that whether vitamin A is harmful or healthful depends on whether sufficient vitamin D is consumed with it.

Does Vitamin K Prevent Bruising

  • 2.20 Vit K
  • Does vitamin k prevent bruisingEven back then, it was widely known that one of vitamin Ks major functions is to stop easy bruising.Over-the-counter medications, such as Vitamin K creams, may help bruises fade away quicker. Also, make sure the person has an adequate Vitamin C intake, as.However, if you bruise easily, a minor bump one you might not even notice can result in a substantial bruise.

    Symposium On Diet And Bone Health

    Published online by Cambridge University Press: 15 April 2008

    Susan A. Lanham-New*
    Affiliation:Nutritional Sciences Division, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey GU2 7XH, UK
    Corresponding author: Dr Susan Lanham-New, fax +44 1483 686401

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    Vitamin K For Osteoporosis: Clinical Studies

    The relationship between dietary vitamin K intake and bone status has been investigated in several epidemiologic and intervention studies . These studies suggest that vitamin K deficiency causes reductions in BMD and increases the risk of fractures, resulting from the undercarboxylation of osteocalcin. Low intakes of vitamin K have been associated with an increased risk of hip fractures. In a study of 72,327 women, vitamin K intakes were inversely related to the risk of hip fracture. The adjusted relative risk of hip fracture was 30% less in the women from the top four quintiles of vitamin K intake compared with women from the lowest quintile . This finding is supported by a study of 888 men and women from the Framingham Heart Study. Patients with the highest quartile of vitamin K intake had a 65% lower adjusted RR of hip fracture than did those in the lowest quartile of intake .

    Undercarboxylated Osteocalcin and Bone Health

    Hodges et al. demonstrated that depressed serum levels of phylloquinone and menaquinone are found in patients with osteoporotic fractures and suggested that serum levels of phylloquinone and menaquinone can serve as markers for osteoporotic fracture risk.

    Vitamin K, Osteocalcin Carboxylation, and Bone Health

    Involvement of Vitamin D

    Cite this: Vitamin K in the Treatment and Prevention of Osteoporosis and Arterial Calcification – Medscape – Aug 01, 2005.

    Vitamin K And Osteoporosis: Myth Or Reality

    4 Vitamins To Help Prevent Osteoporosis
    • 1 These authors contributed equally to this work.Andrea Palermo1 These authors contributed equally to this work.Affiliations
    • 1 These authors contributed equally to this work.Dario TuccinardiCorrespondenceCorresponding author at: Dept. of Endocrinology and Diabetes, University Campus Bio-Medico of Rome, Via Alvaro del Portillo, 21, – 00128 Rome, Italy. Tel.: +39 06 2241 1297 fax: +39 06 22541 9721.1 These authors contributed equally to this work.Affiliations
    • 2 These authors contributed equally to this work.Luca D’Onofrio2 These authors contributed equally to this work.Affiliations
    • 2 These authors contributed equally to this work.Mikiko Watanabe2 These authors contributed equally to this work.AffiliationsDepartment of Experimental Medicine, Section of Medical Physiopathology and Endocrinology, Sapienza University of Rome, 00161 Rome, Italy
    • 1 These authors contributed equally to this work.2 These authors contributed equally to this work.

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    Vitamin K2s Heart Benefits

    Vitamin K2promotes new bone growth in part by increasing calcification, the buildup of calcium deposits, in the bone.

    In soft tissues, calcification can be dangerous. In blood vessels, for example, it leads to the buildup of atherosclerotic plaque associated with cardiovascular disease.

    Research has shown that while vitamin K2 causes beneficial calcification in bones, it prevents harmful calcification in soft tissues, including blood vessels.44,45 This occurs because it activates matrix Gla protein, which inhibits calcification of blood vessels.

    For this reason, vitamin K2 may be protective against cardiovascular disease.46

    Anyone taking warfarin, a powerful anti-coagulant, should consult a physician before deciding to take any form of vitamin K.

    Warfarin functions by blocking vitamin K activity in the body. Those taking warfarin are told to restrict vitamin K intake even from healthy vegetables. Newer drugs like Eliquis®, Pradaxa,®, and Xarelto® provide anticoagulant effects without the need to restrict vitamin K intake.

    Appendix : Food Sources Of Vitamin D65

    Cod Liver Oil


  • Price, Weston A., Nutrition and Physical Degeneration, self-published, p. 275.
  • Nieves, et al., Primary Osteoporosis, in Coe and Favus, eds., Disorders of Bone and Mineral Metabolism, Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, p. 805.
  • Solomons, Noel, Vitamin A and its role in childrens nutrition and health,Wise Traditions 2005, November 12, 2005 .
  • Cannel, John, The Vitamin D Newsletter: Questions and Answers, Published January, 2006. Accessed January 22, 2006.
  • Council for Responsible Nutrition, CRN Reaffirms Vitamin A Intake Levels As Safe and Beneficial: Urges Continued Support of IOM Policy on Upper Limits, Published January 1, 2002. Accessed January 2, 2005.
  • Johansson, Sara, Vitamin A and Osteoporosis: Experimental and Clinical Studies, Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis. Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Medicine, 1392 65 pp.
  • Melhus, et al., Excessive Dietary Intake of Vitamin A is Associated with Reduced Bone Mineral Density and Increased Risk for Hip Fracture,Annals of Internal Medicine, Vol. 129 No. 10 770-778.
  • Ballew, et al., High Serum Retinyl Esters Are Not Associated with Reduced Bone Mineral Density in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988-1994Journal of Bone and Mineral Research, Vol. 16 No. 12 p. 2306.
  • Price, op cit. p. 334.
  • Nieves et al., op cit. p. 816.
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    Vitamin K2 Helps Osteoporosis

    Several studies support the role of Vitamin K2 in improving bone health. A three year study from the Netherlands looked into the effect of Vitamin K2 supplementation in the form of low dosage of Mk7 and its affect on the bone mineral density and bone mineral content of the lumbar spine, total hip and femoral neck. The research team also measured bone strength at the femoral neck.

    The findings showed that Vitamin K2 intake significantly decreased age-related decline of both BMC and BMD in areas with the most trabecular bone: the spine and the femoral neck. It also showed an improvement in bone strength in the femoral neck and a decreased loss of height in the lower thoracic vertebra.

    From Vitamins Back To Foods

    Vitamin K2 for Osteoporosis [and Dosage]

    The fatal flaw of the theory that vitamin A causes osteoporis is paradigmatic: the general approach to nutrition that looks at vitamins as isolated chemicals acting in a vacuum, rather than foods grand, complex associations of many chemicals that all act in concert can only bear so much fruit before faltering. Reductionism does indeed have its place. There is true value in performing experiments to see which effects we can attribute to vitamin A and which we can attribute to vitamin D. The utter folly, however, of the conclusion that because vitamin A antagonizes vitamin D, we should avoid it, is revealed in the history of the discovery of vitamins.

    The first cure for rickets was not vitamin D. The first cure for rickets was a food: cod liver oil. Cod liver oil was initially used as a therapeutic agent in the 1770s, and by the mid-nineteenth century, it was well-recognized as a cure for rickets, osteomalacia, general malnourishment, and various eye conditions.61 Vitamin A was first discovered in 1913 as a component of cod liver oil and butter fat. Even though vitamin A is present in cod liver oil at concentrations 10 to 25 times those of its supposed enemy, vitamin D, cod liver oil was such an effective cure for rickets that the British physician Sir Edward Mellanby attributed the antirachitic properties of cod liver oil to its vitamin A.33

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    Carotenes: Not An Adequate Source Of Vitamin A

    Research since the 1990s has been calling into question previous assumptions about the adequacy of carotenes found in plant foods as a source of vitamin A. In 1949, Hume and Krebs successfully induced vitamin A deficiency in three out of 16 human subjects after 12 months of a depletion diet. The researchers successfully treated one subject with retinol and successfully treated the other two with a concentrated dose of carotenes dissolved in oil that was about four times larger than the dose of retinol, leading them to establish that 3.8 units of carotene are equal to one unit of retinol. A team of researchers led by Sauberlich carried out a similar experiment in 1974, establishing a conversion factor of two units of carotene dissolved in oil for every one unit of retinol.53 Several other experiments at the time established conversion factors between two and four for carotenes dissolved in oil as well.54

    In 2003, Tang and colleagues showed that even the efficiency of ß-carotene dissolved in oil had been grossly overestimated. The researchers gave a concentrated dose of radio-labeled ß-carotene dissolved in oil to 22 adult volunteers and traced the conversion of ß-carotene to vitamin A that occurred both in the intestine and after intestinal absorption. The mean total conversion rate for the oil-soluble carotene in this experiment was 9.1, and individual rates varied from 2.4 to 20.2.53

    Vitamin D And Bone Health

    Calcium has been relentlessly promoted to help improve bone health by restoring and/or preserving bone mineral density especially in the elderly. However, recent evidence suggests that calcium is only part of the requirement for healthy bones.

    The importance of vitamin D to bone health is also now widely accepted because the link between low vitamin D levels and weak bones is established.

    Vitamin D improves bone health by promoting the absorption of calcium into the blood and the retention of calcium in bones.

    How Vitamin D Helps Maintain Healthy Bones
    • Promoting the absorption of calcium in the intestines
    • Promoting the reabsorption of broken-down bones
    • Regulating the blood levels of the calcium and phosphates used in bone formation
    • Promoting the functions of parathyroid hormone which also help regulate serum calcium levels

    Studies show that combining vitamin D with calcium supplementation produces better results and significantly reduces the risks of bone fractures.

    The form of vitamin D that provides the best benefits for bone health is vitamin D3.

    Just as vitamin D helps calcium to improve bone health, vitamin K is also essential for the same reason.

    Researchers believe that both vitamins should be combined with calcium to reduce the risks of bone diseases. In fact, taking large doses of calcium without vitamins K and D can be detrimental to cardiovascular health.

    On the other hand, vitamins D and K drive calcium from the blood into the bones where it is needed.

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    Nutrients That Support Vitamin K2

    The bone-rebuilding effects of vitamin K2 are even greater when supported by several other nutrients. The following vitamins and minerals support strong, healthy bones:

    • Calcium is the major mineral that forms the hard matrix of bone. Most studies show that oral calcium decreases the rate at which bone breakdown and mineral loss occur.18-20
    • Vitamin D helps absorb calcium from the gut after a meal and stimulates the production of osteocalcin.17 It also facilitates the transfer of calcium from the blood and other extracellular fluids to the surface of bones, where it makes them stronger and less likely to break.21 Vitamin D helps the body absorb the bone-strengthening trace elements zinc and manganese as well.22,23
    • Magnesium, like calcium, makes up the mineral matrix of bone and is needed to maintain healthy bone density.24
    • Zinc, Manganese, Silicon, and Boron . These minerals have been shown to be important for optimal bone formation and health. Low intake of each of these minerals is associated with bone loss, and increased intake improves bone health in animals and in humans.25-35

    Supported by these nutrients, vitamin K2 can provide powerful protection against fractures and bone loss.

    Combined Menatetrenone And Alendronate Therapy

    These Foods are Rich in Vitamin D to Prevent Osteoporosis ...

    Hirao et al. conducted a RCT to examine the benefit of combined menatetrenone and alendronate therapy in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. The increase in femoral neck BMD and the decrease in serum ucOC concentrations were greater in the alendronate plus menatetrenone group compared with the alendronate alone group.

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    Vitamin K And Bone Mineral Density

    Studies show that the effect of vitamin K supplementation on bone mineral density varies between men and women. One example of such studies was a 2003 study published in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition.

    For this study the researchers correlated dietary vitamin K intake with bone mineral density in 1,112 men and 1,479 women aged between 29 and 86 years.

    The results of the study showed that low dietary intake of vitamin K was strongly linked with low bone density mineral in women and also an increased risk of bone fractures. In contrast, the study did not find such link between vitamin K intake and bone mineral density in men.

    A review of studies and clinical experience in the use of vitamin K for improving bone health was published in the journal, Nutrition, in 2001.

    The authors confirmed that vitamins D and K produced the best results for improving bone health.

    They also highlighted the use of high doses of vitamin K2 in studies investigating the beneficial effects of the vitamin to bone health.

    However, the reviewers pointed to new evidences suggesting that vitamin K1 at lower doses can also improve bone health as long as it is administered along with vitamin D.

    The authors stated that health regulatory bodies now recognize the importance of vitamin K to bone health. Therefore, the dietary reference intakes of vitamin K has been raised by 50% .

    Animal Evidence: Broiler Chickens

    A team of researchers led by Whitehead published a report in 2004 showing that at various feed concentrations of vitamin D3, changing the feed concentration of vitamin A from 2.4 mg/kg to 4.5 mg/kg had no effect on bone mineralization, bone strength, or serum calcium in broiler chickens.35 The authors did not report how much food was consumed by each chicken per day, but I used data from another study,36 to estimate that the two doses of vitamin A were equivalent to bodyweight-adjusted daily human doses of about 69,000 IU and 130,000 IU. Although this study found no antagonistic effect of vitamin A at any level of vitamin D, the minimum vitamin D intake in the study was equivalent to a daily human dose of over 1700 IU. This minimum vitamin D intake is well above the vitamin D intake that turned off the antagonistic effect of vitamin A for rats in the previous study. Thus, this study is consistent with a switch model, wherein the researchers administered sufficient vitamin D to turn off the negative effect of vitamin A to all treatment groups.

    Rhode and Deluca showed that a mere amount of vitamin D equivalent to a daily human dose of just over 900 IU was able to turn off the negative effect of vitamin A on the serum calcium levels of rats, who as mammals are closer to humans than are chickens, even when the rats consumed amounts of vitamin A that exceeded the equivalent of a daily human dose of 5,000,000 IU.34

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    You Have To Lose Bone To Make New Strong Bone

    Scientists call the natural process of bone loss resorption. Before new bone can be formed, bone cells called osteoclasts remove old bone tissue. Their bone building counterparts, osteoblasts, then come through and deposit new bone where the old bone once was. New bone is strong and flexible and much more resilient and resistant against fractures. It is alsoand this is importantliving tissue that needs nutrients.

    It is estimated you replace about 10% of your skeletal bone tissue every year. When you were still growing in your teens and early twenties, the formation of new bone outpaced the resorption of old bone. Later, in your thirties, there was a balance in the resorption and bone formation process. However, sometime in your late thirties to early forties, resorption began to outpace the formation of new bone.

    Remember, resorption is a natural process and the first step in recycling bone calcium and building new bone. So resorption is not the villain herethough that is what the makers of osteoclast-blocking bisphosphonate drugs that halt resorption would have you thinknor is it the lack of calcium though that is what the government and the calcium-fortified food industry would have you thinkno, the true culprit is the medical establishment and their single minded focus on bone mass density as the only measure of bone health.


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