Ability To Boost Glutathione Levels May Improve Immune Function
NAC and glutathione also benefit immune health.
Research on certain diseases associated with NAC and glutathione deficiency suggests that supplementing with NAC might improve and potentially restore immune function .
This factor has been studied most in people with HIV.
In two studies, supplementing with NAC resulted in a significant increase in immune function, with an almost complete restoration of natural killer cells (
Overall, more human studies are needed. Therefore, be sure to talk with your doctor before taking NAC during cancer treatment .
Nac/aap Mediated Atypical Necrosis Via Aif Translocation In H2o2
AIF/H2AX pathway was involved in the protective effect of NAC and AAP.
To investigate whether AIF pathway was involved in the H2O2-induced necroptosis, we introduced Necrostatin 1 , an necroptosis inhibitor that blocks RIPK1 activation, before the H2O2 treatment. The results showed that Nec1 alone had no effect on the mitochondrial AIF level. However, Nec1 treatment decreased the mitochondrial AIF level to 0.44-fold in hADMSCs suffering from H2O2 challenge , . Addition of NAC/AAP further enhanced the effect of Nec1 on reducing mitochondrial AIF release after H2O2 treatment . Retaining of AIF, as well as the mitochondrial function was further confirmed by JC-1 staining: NAC/AAP plus Nec1 pretreatment markedly increased the cell population with higher MMP after H2O2 challenge .
The mitochondrial ROS generation was also analyzed with MitoSOX to address the role of NAC/AAP pretreatment in H2O2-induced necrotopsis . Cells under H2O2 treatment showed higher red fluorescence as compared with that in the normal control group . The fluorescence intensity was lower in the NAC/AAP pretreated cells , while Nec1 treatment did not reduce the mitochondrial ROS production . More remarkably, the Nec1 and NAC/AAP co-treatment totally suppressed the mitochondrial ROS production .
What Are The Risks
Side effects. Some of the side effects that may be caused by NAC include:
Risks. If you have asthma or bleeding problems, your doctor may tell you to avoid NAC. You will likely be told to stop NAC 2 weeks before any elective surgery.
If you’re pregnant or breastfeeding, you must check with a doctor before using NAC supplements.
Interactions. If you take any medicines regularly, talk to your doctor before you start using NAC supplements. They could interact with nitroglycerin, blood thinners, and certain blood pressure medicines.
Dietary supplements are not regulated by the FDA in the same way that drugs are. The FDA does not review these supplements for safety or efficacy before they hit the market.
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We Recommend You Follow This Guide:
Examples: 5HTP, Methionine and SAMe, N- Acetyl Cysteine , Tyrosine and Glycine
When to take: On an empty stomach eg 30min before breakfast on rising or 2 hours after dinner at bedtime. SAMe and NAC can disturb sleep so take them in the morning
Examples: Vitamins A/B/C/D/E
When to take: With food, see below. Except vitamin B12- usually via injection or under the tongue
When to take: Take on an empty stomach in the morning. Can cause stomach upset, if this occurs, take with the meal. Better absorption if taken with Vitamin C. Must take at least 2hr away from zinc and calcium
When to take: At bedtime. Can cause stomach upset, if this occurs, take with night meal. Must take at least 2 hours away from iron and calcium
When to take: At bedtime
Mouse Lung Tumor Assay
Mice were acclimatized for 10 days, after which all of them received a single i.p. injection of urethane, at a dose of 1 g/kg body weight. Animals were divided into 4 groups, each composed of 30 mice, including mice treated with urethane only, mice treated with urethane and AsA, mice treated with urethane and NAC and mice treated with a combination of AsA and NAC. Both drugs were given with drinking water, starting 7 days before injection of the carcinogen and continuing until the end of the experiment. Concentrations of AsA and NAC were calibrated according to body weight and water consumption, to yield a calculated daily intake of 1 g/kg body weight each. The body weight of each mouse was measured at weekly intervals.
Four months after injection of urethane, all mice were anesthetized with diethyl ether and killed by cervical dislocation. Tellyesniczky’s fixative was instilled into the trachea, and lungs were removed and immersed in the same fixative. After 7 days of fixation, the number of surface tumors was scored using a stereomicroscope. Urethane-induced tumors are localized beneath the pleura, and there is no advantage in examining serial lung sections . The 2 main diameters of each tumor were measured with a 10 mm/0.1 linear micrometer. Ten tumors per group were subjected to standard histopathological analysis after staining with hematoxylinâeosin.
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Nac/aap Protected Hadmscs From H2o2
The nuclei of hADMSCs after various treatments were observed by live-cell fluorescent microscopy after staining with Hoechst dye and PI. No abnormal cell was found in the control group while a high number of cells displayed typical apoptosis- and necrosis-like changes were noted in H2O2 treated cells . Flow cytometric analysis also showed that PI+ cells were decreased in the NAC/AAP treated cells subjected to H2O2 challenge. Among them, the Annexin V+/PI+ cells were indicated as the late apoptotic cells . To evaluate whether NAC/AAP attenuated the cell death of hADMSCs by reducing the ROS generation in the present study, the intracellular ROS level was examined using DCFDA and DHE staining. Our data show that NAC/AAP protected hADMSCs from oxidative stress injury, at least partially, by inhibiting the intracellular ROS generation .
NAC/AAP protected hADMSCs against H2O2-induced apoptosis and necrosis.
The activation of caspases and expression of pro-apoptotic proteins were revealed by immunoblotting . Besides increasing the expression of the anti-apoptotic BCL2, NAC/AAP decreased the expressions of BAX, cleaved caspase-9, -3 and PARP1. NAC/AAP also markedly decreased the ratio of BAX/BCL2 protein ratio. These findings indicated that activation of caspase cascade could be one of the mechanisms of H2O2induced apoptosis and necrosis in hADMSCs.
Effects Of Antioxidants On Caspase
Catalase pretreatment completely inhibited caspase-3 activation at 3 and 6 h HcyT incubation, indicating that H2O2 scavenging played a crucial role in caspase-3 activation . At 3 h HcyT incubation, all antioxidants tested, NAC, Vit C, Vit E and folate, partially suppressed caspase-3 activity. The inhibitory effect of NAC, Vit C and Vit E on caspase-3 activation persisted at 6 h HcyT treatment. In contrast, folate did not suppress caspase-3 activation in HcyT-treated cells at 6 h.
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Dosage For Specific Conditions
The University of Michigan Health System notes the following daily doses were used in clinical trials evaluating NAC for various conditions: Bronchitis, 400 mg to 600 mg chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, 200 mg three times a day angina, 600 mg three times a day gastritis, 1,000 mg HIV/AIDS, 800 mg.
Animal & Cell Research
No clinical evidence supports the use of NAC for any of the conditions listed in this section. Below is a summary of the existing animal and cell-based research, which should guide further investigational efforts. However, the studies listed below should not be interpreted as supportive of any health benefit.
Oxidative stress plays a role in diseases like ALS, and NAC offers some hope for ALS patients. But so far, it only prevented ALS-like degeneration of brain cells .
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Considerations For Mineral Supplementation
The Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center notes prolonged supplementation with NAC could decrease your levels of trace minerals, but that research looking at this action suggests this effect is minimal. If you plan on using NAC long-term, however, consider taking a standard multivitamin and mineral supplement.
Risks Side Effects And Interactions
Is NAC dangerous?
While its safe for most people to take, some drug interactions and negative reactions are possible. Overall, most experts believe that the use of NAC yields potential benefits that outweigh potential risks.
What are the side effects of NAC?
Potential NAC side effects can include:
- indigestion/upset stomach
- skin rash
It might not be safe for people with asthma, bleeding problems or anyone taking nitroglycerin, including blood thinners and certain blood pressure medications. If these apply to you, check with your doctor before using NAC supplements to discuss any possible interactions.
Is NAC hard on the kidneys? Can NAC cause liver damage?
In very high doses any supplement is capable of contributing to liver or kidney problems however, as explained above, generally NAC is considered protective of the liver and kidneys, not a harm to them.
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Helps Relieve Symptoms Of Respiratory Conditions
NAC can relieve symptoms of respiratory conditions by acting as an antioxidant and expectorant, loosening mucus in your air passageways.
As an antioxidant, NAC helps replenish glutathione levels in your lungs and reduces inflammation in your bronchial tubes and lung tissue.
People with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease experience long-term oxidative damage and inflammation of lung tissue, which causes airways to constrict, leading to shortness of breath and coughing.
NAC supplements have been used to improve COPD symptoms, exacerbations, and lung decline (
People with chronic bronchitis can also benefit from NAC.
Bronchitis occurs when the mucous membranes in your lungs bronchial passageways become inflamed, swell, and shut off airways to your lungs .
In addition to relieving COPD and bronchitis, NAC may improve other lung and respiratory tract conditions such as cystic fibrosis, asthma, and pulmonary fibrosis as well as symptoms of nasal and sinus congestion due to allergies or infections (
NACs antioxidant and expectorant capacity can improve lung function by decreasing inflammation and breaking up mucus.
What Is Nac Why Do People Take It
N-acetylcysteine , the supplement form of cysteine, is an amino acid that helps the body create and use protective antioxidants.
While cysteine is found in many high-protein foods, NAC is only obtained from taking supplements or prescription drugs.
Because the human body can create some NAC from other amino acids, particularly methionine and serine, it is considered to be a semi-essential amino acid. That means there isnt a daily requirement of NAC that you must get from your diet, but getting higher amounts can benefit some people.
What is NAC used for? Some of its most common uses include:
- Increasing levels of the antioxidant called glutathione
- Treating acetaminophen
- Breaking up mucus in people with some lung diseases, including chronic bronchitis
- Protecting the liver
- Helping prevent bladder or neurologic damage caused by some drugs
- Potentially helping prevent colon cancer
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Glutathione Nac & Vitamin C
COMBINATION OF VITAL NUTRIENTS: Reduced glutathione is a linear, water-soluble tripeptide formed by 3 amino acids, glutamate, cysteine and glycine. Glutathione can be found virtually in every cell of the human body, which is why it is often referred to as the bodys master antioxidant. Vitamin C has roles in immune stimulation, synthesis of collagen, neurotransmitters, iron absorption and in detoxification. NAC is a precursor of L-cysteine that results in glutathione biosynthesis.
POWERFUL ANTIOXIDANT DEFENSE: Glutathione is an extremely important cell protectant. It has a sulfhydryl group on the cysteinyl portion, which accounts for its strong electron-donating character. Glutathione boosts the utilization and recycling of other antioxidants, namely vitamin C, E, alpha lipoic acid and CoQ10. NAC is able to increase cell protection against oxidative stress which is accomplished through the release of cysteine, which is the rate-limiting precursor in the synthesis of glutathione.
BOOSTS IMMUNE HEALTH: Vitamin C is a highly effective antioxidant, due to its ability to donate electrons, thus protecting important biomolecules from damage by oxidants generated by free radicals. Apart from replenishing the glutathione, NAC has been shown to optimize immune health by influencing several macrophage, neutrophils and lymphocyte function. Glutathione primes white cells such as natural killer cells and T cells, your bodys front line infection fighters.
When to take glutathione?
Nac/aap Protected Hadmscs Against H2o2
In this study, we used H2O2 as an oxidative stressor to evaluate its effects on hADMSCs, the adipose tissue-derived MSCs. Treatment with various concentrations of H2O2 for 4 h reduced the hADMSCs proliferation in a dose-dependent manner and the median effective dose was determined to be approximately 0.5 mM. To test whether NAC and/or AAP were able to protect hADMSCSs from oxidative stress, we treated hADMSCs with various concentrations of NAC and/or AAP for 20 h followed by exposure to 0.5mM H2O2 for 4 h . As shown in , hADMSCs were significantly rescued by NAC in a dose-dependent manner . AAP also rescued the survival of hADMSCs in a dose-dependent manner . To evaluate the synergistic protecting effect of NAC and AAP, we subjected hADMSCs to various NAC/AAP concentrations for the subsequent studies. The proliferation of combined treatment was similar to that observed in high-dose single treatment groups . And there was no significant difference of cell proliferation between the high-dose groups and the combination of low-dose .
NAC/AAP inhibited H2O2-induced growth inhibition in hADMSCs.
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Relieve Flu Symptoms And Improve Respiratory Conditions
NAC is usedto provide relief from the symptoms of flu and other respiratory conditionsthrough its antioxidative and expectorant properties.
The expectorant properties of the supplement help it to loosen the mucus in the air passageways. The antioxidative properties of the amino acid are evident when glutathione is produced, and it reduces the inflammation of the lungs and bronchial tubes.
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease caused by long-term inflammation of the lungs can cause coughing and difficulty in breathing. NAC can be used to relieve COPD symptoms and prevent lung damage.
Bronchitisis caused by the inflammation of the lungs and bronchial tubes. This results inthe swelling of the air passageways, leading to the shutting out of air.
NAC can help to tackle bronchitis by thinning mucus blocking the airways. It can also reduce the inflammation of the airways by the production of glutathione.
The glutathione is an antioxidant which helps to reduce the free radicals causing the inflammation.
Furthermore,NAC can also help in the improvement of other respiratory conditions such asasthma, cystic fibrosis, pulmonary fibrosis, nasal congestion, and sinuscongestion.
Reduces The Side Effects Of Chemotherapy And X
NAC hasbeen used to prevent ear damage caused by chemotherapy with the drug,Cisplatin. Administering NAC as an injection to the ear prior to thechemotherapy protected the ear from damage from the drug.
Inflammationsand mouth ulcers caused by chemotherapy was reduced with NAC infusions. OralNAC could prevent the occurrence of side effects of chemotherapy to the brain.Intravenous injections of NAC could prevent kidney damage caused bychemotherapy.
NAC when used in combination with other antioxidants such as vitamin C, beta carotene, and lipoic acid, has been used to prevent the side-effects of x-ray radiation.
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Prevent Liver Damage From Acetaminophen Overdose
N-Acetyl Cysteine is used to prevent organ damage from acetaminophen overdose if used within eight hours of the overdose.
A high concentration of acetaminophen in the body caused by its overdose can cause sudden and severe liver damage.
It has alsobeen used to prevent severe damage from other drugs, hepatitis, toxins, andsurgery procedures.
Special Precautions & Warnings
Pregnancy or breast-feedingPOSSIBLY SAFE
There is not enough reliable information about the safety of taking N-acetyl cysteine if you are breast-feeding. Stay on the safe side and avoid use.
Allergy: Don’t use N-acetyl cysteine if you are allergic to acetyl cysteine.
Asthma: There is a concern that N-acetyl cysteine might cause bronchospasm in people with asthma if inhaled or taken by mouth or through a tube in the windpipe. If you take N-acetyl cysteine and have asthma, you should be monitored by your healthcare provider.
Bleeding disorder. N-acetyl cysteine might slow blood clotting. There is concern that N-acetyl cysteine might increase the risk of bruising and bleeding in people with bleeding disorders.
Surgery. N-acetyl cysteine might slow blood clotting. This might increase the risk of bleeding during and after surgery. Stop taking N-acetyl cysteine at least 2 weeks before a scheduled surgery.
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Boosts Brain Health By Regulating Glutamate And Replenishing Glutathione
NACs ability to replenish glutathione and regulate brain glutamate levels can boost brain health.
The neurotransmitter glutamate is involved in a broad range of learning, behavior, and memory functions, while the antioxidant glutathione helps reduce brain cell oxidative damage that is associated with aging .
Because NAC helps regulate glutamate levels and replenish glutathione, it may benefit those with health conditions affecting the brain and memory .
The neurological disorder Alzheimers disease slows down learning and memory capacity. Animal studies suggest that NAC may slow the loss of thinking ability in people with Alzheimers disease .
Another brain condition, Parkinsons disease, is characterized by the deterioration of cells that generate the neurotransmitter dopamine. Both oxidative damage to cells and a decrease in antioxidant ability contribute to this disease.
NAC supplements appear to improve both dopamine function and disease symptoms such as tremors (
While NAC may improve brain health, more human research is needed to make strong conclusions.
Many male infertility issues increase when antioxidant levels are insufficient to address free radical formation in the reproductive system. The oxidative stress can cause cell death and reduced fertility .
In some cases, NAC has been shown to improve male fertility.
Researchers suggested that this combined supplement should be considered as a treatment option for male infertility.
Potential Benefits Of N
Note that in the list below, acetaminophen toxicity is the only FDA-approved use of NAC. If you suspect that you or someone you know has overdosed on acetaminophen, Do not attempt to self-administer NAC.
If you want to incorporate NAC into your daily health routine, talk to your doctor first. They can help you identify any unexpected interactions with your existing medical prescriptions and other health strategies.
Though the preliminary evidence for many of these potential benefits is promising, no usage of NAC is FDA-approved except for treatment of acetaminophen toxicity.
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