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Which Are Fat Soluble Vitamins

Where To Find Fat

Fat Soluble Vitamins

Weston A Price knew that these sacred foods included organ meats, butter, cheese, and eggs from pastured and grass-fed animals.

Perhaps you know that leafy greens provide vitamin K1 . When animals eat their leafy greens, this K1 becomes K2 available in the animal fats. And sunlight is still a great source of vitamin D. Hence, on green pasture with abundant sunlight is essential if you are looking for these nutrients in your animal foods.

Liver is the highest source of vitamin A. Period.

Find and support your local, regenerative, grass farmers! Ask for grass-fed, grass-finished from your local butcher.

Vitamin K: Metabolism Dietary Sources Functions And Signaling Pathways

Vitamin K that comes from diet is absorbed by micelles formation upon mixing with bile salts. The more the fatty content in the meal, the more efficient is its absorption . When taken up by enterocytes, vitamin K and other dietary fats are packed together into the chylomicrons to enter the circulation . While phylloquinone are being transported by the chylomicron, menaquinones is usually transported by the VLDL or low-density lipoprotein , and both are taken up the liver via lipoprotein receptors . The metabolism of phylloquinone and menaquinone starts with -hydroxylation, then -oxidation of the polyisoprenoic side chain into shorter carboxylic acids takes place in the mitochondria to allow glucuronidation which is followed by urine or bile excretion .

Vitamin K is important for the synthesis of prothrombin and is considered as key player in posttranslational activation of coagulation factors as mentioned earlier . Intriguingly, not only coagulation factors which are currently known to need vitamin-k-depended -carboxylation, but also Gla proteins have been found to undergo posttranslational -carboxylation . Gla proteins have been known, so far, to be involved in blood coagulation and connective tissue mineralization . Moreover, four Gla proteins function as transmembrane receptors, one binds the hyaluronic acid, one acts as growth-factor-like signaling molecule, and one is -carboxylase .

Vitamin K: Its Role In Health

Vitamin K is essential for proper blood clotting. Vitamin K also supports bone health, even reducing post-menopausal bone loss among women. Interestingly, vitamin K may even prove effective in the fight against degenerative cognitive diseases like Alzheimer’s Disease. Japanese studies indicate that vitamin K could play a very vital role in the treatment of cancers–particularly liver cancer.

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Why Do You Need Fat To Get Vitamin A

Furthermore, the presence of both dietary fat and carotenoids in a meal is required for vitamin A absorption because the fatty acids induce the conversion of beta-carotene into vitamin A and its subsequent absorption via the lymphatic system .

Vitamin A is needed for healthy eyes, bones, lungs, immune system, and reproductive system. It also plays a role in cell division and growth. The body uses vitamin A for many tasks including maintaining healthy teeth and gums, fighting infections, and healing wounds.

The best sources of vitamin A are dark green vegetables such as kale, collards, spinach, broccoli, and carrots. Other good sources include sweet potatoes, mangoes, papayas, peaches, pineapples, milk, and meat products such as liver, fish eggs, and butter. Milk contains all the vitamin A that your baby needs during pregnancy and for the first year of her life. You should discuss with your doctor what kind of diet would be suitable for your medical condition or treatment plan. If you are unable to eat foods containing fats, such as raw vegetables or those cooked at high temperatures, then take supplements instead.

You can get vitamin A from dairy products but only if they’re fortified with it. Otherwise, you’d be eating too much calcium which could lead to brittle bones.

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Vitamin A Functions And Health Benefits

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Vitamin A is a generic term for a group of similar compounds called retinoids. Retinol is the form of vitamin A found in animal-derived foods, and is converted in the body to the biologically active forms of vitamin A: retinal and retinoic acid . About 10 percent of plant-derived carotenoids, including beta-carotene, can be converted in the body to retinoids and are another source of functional vitamin A. Carotenoids are pigments synthesized by plants that give them their yellow, orange, and red color. Over six hundred carotenoids have been identified and, with just a few exceptions, all are found in the plant kingdom. There are two classes of carotenoidsthe xanthophylls, which contain oxygen, and the carotenes, which do not.

In plants, carotenoids absorb light for use in photosynthesis and act as antioxidants. Beta-carotene, alpha-carotene, and beta-cryptoxanthin are converted to some extent to retinol in the body. The other carotenoids, such as lycopene, are not. Many biological actions of carotenoids are attributed to their antioxidant activity, but they likely act by other mechanisms, too.

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Need An Immune Boost For A Hungry Belly This Antioxidant

Blueberries and Acai are rich with antioxidants and vitamins like vitamin C, vitamin K, manganese, and other minerals for a healthy immune system. While avocado and nut milks offer brain-healthy fats to keep you fuller, longer. Avocados can also help your body absorb the nutrients from other plant-food sources like fat-soluble vitamins and antioxidants.

Papaya seeds, while generally thrown away, are actually great for digestion and for cleansing the body of parasites. Stevia is a great no-calorie sweetener. If the facts dont have you convinced, the flavor will! Sip on this refreshing smoothie anytime you need a boost for the spirit, mind, and belly.

Need an immune boost for a hungry belly? This antioxidant-rich superfood smoothie will give your body a dose of nutrients to keep you healthy, strong, and satiated!

Blueberries and Acai are rich with antioxidants and vitamins like vitamin C, vitamin K, manganese, and other minerals for a healthy immune system. While avocado and nut milks offer brain-healthy fats to keep you fuller, longer. Avocados can also help your body absorb the nutrients from other plant-food sources like fat-soluble vitamins and antioxidants.

Papaya seeds, while generally thrown away, are actually great for digestion and for cleansing the body of parasites. Stevia is a great no-calorie sweetener. If the facts dont have you convinced, the flavor will! Sip on this refreshing smoothie anytime you need a boost for the spirit, mind, and belly.

Dietary Reference Intakes For Vitamin E

The Recommended Dietary Allowances and Tolerable Upper Intake Levels for different age groups for vitamin E are given in Table 9.6 Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin E.

Table 9.6 Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin E

Age Group
1,000
*denotes Adequate Intake

Source: Dietary Supplement Fact Sheet: Vitamin E.National Institutes of Health, Office of Dietary Supplements. . Updated October 11, 2011. Accessed October 5, 2017.

Vitamin E supplements often contain more than 400 international units, which is almost twenty times the RDA. The UL for vitamin E is set at 1,500 international units for adults. There is some evidence that taking vitamin E supplements at high doses has negative effects on health. As mentioned, vitamin E inhibits blood clotting and a few clinical trials have found that people taking vitamin E supplements have an increased risk of stroke. In contrast to vitamin E from supplements, there is no evidence that consuming foods containing vitamin E compromises health.

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Groups At Higher Risk For Deficiency

For all of the fat-soluble vitamins, patientsPatientsIndividuals participating in the health care system for the purpose of receiving therapeutic, diagnostic, or preventive procedures.ClinicianPatient Relationship with fat-malabsorption issues are at higher risk for deficiency. These conditions include:

Benefits Of Vitamin A Supplements

Fat Soluble VS Water Soluble Vitamins ð? 𥬠ð?

While supplements are beneficial for those who have a deficiency, most people get enough vitamin A from their diet and do not need to take supplements.

Yet, controlled studies suggest that vitamin A supplements may benefit certain people even if their diet meets the basic requirements.

For instance, vitamin A supplements may help treat measles in children .

They protect against measles-associated pneumonia and reduce the risk of death by 5080%. Studies suggest that vitamin A acts by suppressing the measles virus .

Summary

Supplements mainly benefit those who are low or deficient in vitamin A. One exception is children with measles, as studies show that supplements may help treat the disease.

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Pate With Italian Sausage Seasonings

In the Art of Simple Food, Alice Waters shares a couple of homemade sausage recipes. I loved the seasonings from the first one so much, I turned it into pâté. It was only a matter of time before I adopted the second recipe as well. Hence, Pate with Italian Sausage Seasonings was born.

Of course, I always make pate in batches. High efficiency, easy to freeze. Meanwhile, this is perfect for a picnic or if you are thinking easy Italian for breakfast, lunch or dinner!

Fat Soluble Vitamins Serum

Nutritional testing of circulating levels of fat-soluble vitamins provides a good indication of their status throughout the body. The primary fat-soluble vitamins are involved in a vast array of protective and regulatory functions. The thoroughly intertwined and complementary actions among some of the fat-soluble vitamins is equally impressive with respect to optimization of health and disease prevention. Although overt deficiencies are rare, marginal status of specific fat soluble vitamins may be affected by poor diets, inappropriate supplementation, smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, malabsorption, and increased demand associated with chronic conditions such as cardiovascular disease and diabetes.

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Vitamin E: What Is It

Vitamin E refers to several nutrients called tocopherols. These are fat soluble vitamins. Of these tocopherols, alpha-tocopherol offers the highest bioavailability. While alpha-tocopherol seems to be the most active, beta-tocopherol, gamma-tocopherol and delta-tocopherol each play their complementary role. As with other fat soluble vitamins, avoid synthetic supplements.

Absorptionabsorptionabsorption Involves The Uptake Of Nutrient Molecules And Their Transfer From The Lumen Of The Gi Tract Across The Enterocytes And Into The Interstitial Space Where They Can Be Taken Up In The Venous Or Lymphatic Circulationdigestion And Absorption And Transport

NutriFlair Liposomal Vitamin C 1400mg, 180 Capsules
  • Ingested in the diet, digested by enzymesEnzymesEnzymes are complex protein biocatalysts that accelerate chemical reactions without being consumed by them. Due to the bodys constant metabolic needs, the absence of enzymes would make life unsustainable, as reactions would occur too slowly without these molecules. Basics of Enzymes, absorbed by intestinal mucosal cells, and packaged into chylomicrons
  • Chylomicrons transport the -tocopherol form of vitamin E to the liverLiverThe liver is the largest gland in the human body. The liver is found in the superior right quadrant of the abdomen and weighs approximately 1.5 kilograms. Its main functions are detoxification, metabolism, nutrient storage , synthesis of coagulation factors, formation of bile, filtration, and storage of blood. Liver: Anatomy through the lymphatic systemLymphatic systemA system of organs and tissues that process and transport immune cells and lymph.Primary Lymphatic Organs.
  • In hepatocytesHepatocytesThe main structural component of the liver. They are specialized epithelial cells that are organized into interconnected plates called lobules.Liver: Anatomy, -tocopherol is packaged in VLDLs and secreted into the bloodstream.

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Do You Need To Eat Fat To Absorb Vitamin D

Even if you don’t consume much fat with your vitamin D, you will absorb some of it. It will only be about 15â30% less than if you consume some fat with your dinner. A “high-fat” dinner may result in less vitamin D absorption than a low-to-moderate-fat meal.

Furthermore, the presence of both dietary fat and carotenoids in a meal is required for vitamin A absorption because the fatty acids induce the conversion of beta-carotene into vitamin A and its subsequent absorption via the lymphatic system .

Fat solubility has two main effects: how efficiently the vitamin is absorbed with fat-containing foods and how long it stays in your body. It’s a two-edged sword to be fat-soluble. On the one hand, you may store those vitamins in your body fat and liver, so you don’t need to take them every day.

Benefits And Risks Of High Vitamin E Intake Or Supplements

High vitamin E intake from food or supplements has been linked with a number of benefits.

One form of vitamin E, gamma-tocopherol, was found to increase blood flow by promoting the dilation of blood vessels, potentially reducing blood pressure and the risk of heart disease .

Gamma-tocopherol supplements may also have a blood-thinning effect as well as a reduction effect on LDL cholesterol levels .

In contrast, other studies suggest that high dose vitamin E supplements may be harmful, even when they dont cause any obvious symptoms of toxicity.

For instance, observational studies show that taking vitamin E supplements is linked with an increased risk of prostate cancer and death by all causes .

Given the potentially adverse effects of vitamin E supplements, they cannot be recommended at this point. High quality studies are needed before solid conclusions can be reached about the long-term safety of these supplements.

Summary

Vitamin E supplements may reduce the risk of heart disease, but the evidence is conflicting. Some studies suggest that high dose supplements are harmful. More studies are needed.

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How Fat Soluble Vitamins Are Absorbed

When you eat foods with fat-soluble vitamins, it goes through the digestion process. When it gets to the small intestine, the fat-soluble vitamins are released. Unlike water-soluble vitamins that go directly into the bloodstream, fat-soluble vitamins are absorbed through the intestinal wall and into the lymph system, according to cardiologist Dariush Mozaffarian on Sharecare.com. Once in the lymph system, the vitamins are sent to the bloodstream where they are put out for use by the body or sent for storage in the liver and fat cells. When your body is in need of one of these vitamins, it is released from storage.

Vitamin D: What Is It

Fat-Soluble Vitamins (Chapter 11)

Vitamin D is a group of fat-soluble vitamins. They are considered prohormones, or the precursors to hormones, and are essential to endocrine health. There are several forms of vitamin D, but the most common are ergocalciferol and cholecalciferol which are known together as calciferol.

Vitamin D2 is not a truly natural form of the vitamin D. Vitamin D2 does not occur in any detectable quantities in humans instead, it’s produced in minute quantities in plants. Supplementary vitamin D2 is manufactured by subjecting fungus to ultraviolet radiation. As this process is considered “natural,” supplementary vitamin D2 may be misleadingly labeled as “natural” even though that is not truly the case. Recent research indicates that vitamin D2 is linked to calcium malabsorption.

In a study on vitamin D2 published in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, researchers stated:

“These are officially regarded as equivalent and interchangeable . Although sunshine exposure and fish consumption provide vitamin D in the form of D3, a different bioactive, plant-derived form of vitamin D, named vitamin D2, was produced in the early 1920s through ultraviolet exposure of foods. This process was patented and licensed to pharmaceutical companies, which led to the development of a medicinal preparation of vitamin D2 … Vitamin D2, or ergocalciferol, should not be regarded as a nutrient suitable for supplementation or fortification.”

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Absorptionabsorptionabsorption Involves The Uptake Of Nutrient Molecules And Their Transfer From The Lumen Of The Gi Tract Across The Enterocytes And Into The Interstitial Space Where They Can Be Taken Up In The Venous Or Lymphatic Circulationdigestion And Absorption

SynthesisSynthesisPolymerase Chain Reaction from sun exposure is very important for conversion into an active form.

  • 25D undergoes a second hydroxylation in the kidney and forms the physiologically active 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 D3):
  • Also known as calcitriolCalcitriolThe physiologically active form of vitamin d. It is formed primarily in the kidney by enzymatic hydroxylation of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol . Its production is stimulated by low blood calcium levels and parathyroid hormone. Calcitriol increases intestinal absorption of calcium and phosphorus, and in concert with parathyroid hormone increases bone resorption.Parathyroid Glands: Anatomy
  • Most active form
  • Half-lifeHalf-LifeThe time it takes for a substance to lose half of its pharmacologic, physiologic, or radiologic activity.Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics: 46 hours
  • Vitamin D2 is synthesized by fungiFungiA kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including mushrooms yeasts smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.Mycology, undergoes two hydroxylations, and has biologic activity similar to 1,25D3.
  • Both vitamins D2 and D3 can be absorbed from the intestines:
  • Types of vitamin D

    Dietary Reference Intakes For Vitamin A

    There is more than one source of vitamin A in the diet. There is preformed vitamin A, which is abundant in many animal-derived foods, and there are carotenoids, which are found in high concentrations in vibrantly colored fruits and vegetables and some oils.

    Some carotenoids are converted to retinol in the body by intestinal cells and liver cells. However, only minuscule amounts of certain carotenoids are converted to retinol, meaning fruits and vegetables are not necessarily good sources of vitamin A.

    The RDA for vitamin A includes all sources of vitamin A. The RDA for vitamin A is given in mcg of Retinol Activity Equivalent to take into account the many different forms it is available in. The human body converts all dietary sources of vitamin A into retinol. Therefore, 1 mcg of retinol is equivalent to 12 mcg of beta-carotene, and 24 mcg of alpha-carotene or beta-cryptoxanthin. For example, 12 micrograms of fruit- or vegetable-based beta-carotene will yield 1 microgram of retinol. Currently vitamin A listed in food and on supplement labels use international units . The following conversions are listed below:

    • 1 IU retinol = 0.3 mcg RAE
    • 1 IU beta-carotene from dietary supplements = 0.15 mcg RAE
    • 1 IU beta-carotene from food = 0.05 mcg RAE
    • 1 IU alpha-carotene or beta-cryptoxanthin = 0.025 mcg RAE

    The RDA for vitamin A is considered sufficient to support growth and development, reproduction, vision, and immune system function while maintaining adequate stores in the liver.

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