Are There Other Mechanisms By Which Vitamin C Could Affect Chronic Disease Incidence Mortality Or Both
As discussed above, vitamin C has many functions in the body, such as acting as a cosubstrate for several biosynthetic enzymes . Therefore, vitamin C may affect chronic disease incidence, mortality, or both by mechanisms that may not be directly related to its role as an antioxidant.
Hypercholesterolemia is a significant risk factor for cardiovascular disease . The relation between vitamin C supplementation, or plasma vitamin C concentrations, and total serum cholesterol has been investigated in several studies . In one supplementation study, consumption of 1000 mg vitamin C/d for 4 wk resulted in a reduction in total serum cholesterol , whereas in another study, supplementation with 60 or 6000 mg/d for 2 wk had no effect . Two observational studies found an inverse correlation between vitamin C status and total serum cholesterol concentrations . The mechanism for the possible modulating effect of vitamin C on serum cholesterol concentrations is not entirely certain. One putative pathway is through vitamin C’s role as a cofactor for cholesterol 7-monooxygenase, an enzyme involved in the in vivo hydroxylation of cholesterol to form bile acids . Vitamin C may also modulate the activity of hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA reductase, the rate-limiting enzyme in the biosynthesis of cholesterol .
What Are The Benefits Of Vitamin C
“Vitamin C is a potent antioxidant, most known for supporting your immune system,”* board-certified physician Bindiya Gandhi, M.D., previously told mindbodygreen. It’s also the primary water-soluble vitamin in your body and, as such, supports nearly every body system.*
And as mbg’s VP of scientific affairs Ashley Jordan Ferira, Ph.D., RDN, explains, “Vitamin C is 100% essential for immune function, but don’t underestimate this micronutrient. For example, its positive cardiovascular impact is incredibly compelling.”* Ferira goes on to say that vitamin C’s heart support is “partially because of this micronutrient’s pivotal role in whole-body antioxidant balance but also due to its requirement for collagen synthesis. Yes, even your blood vessels and heart need the collagen protein for their structure and optimal function.”*
But we’re getting ahead of ourselves. Here’s a quick breakdown of what vitamin C does for you:*
Amount In Multivitamin Vs Recommendation
The majority of multivitamins on the market provide 60 milligrams of vitamin C per dose, notes Dr. Jane Higdon, a research associate with the Linus Pauling Institute at Oregon State University. This is less than the recommendation of 75 daily milligrams for adult women and 90 daily milligrams for adult men, which doesnt increase as you get older. So, women might need an extra 15 milligrams daily and men might require another 30 milligrams than what’s found in a multivitamin. Check the label.
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Can You Be Allergic To Vitamin C
Technically, no. The isolated vitamin of ascorbic acid is an essential nutrient for human health and you would die without it. However you can have an allergic reaction to vitamin C tablets, face cream, serum, and drinks containing it. Since ascorbic acid is often made using corn, those with an allergy to that plant are at risk.
Allergy to vitamin C causes are unlikely to be from corn since that is a very rare allergy. Plus, the potential amount of allergens remaining residual protein matter from the plant would likely be in a concentration of only parts per million . If you are experiencing ascorbic acid intolerance its likely you are allergic to another ingredient in that supplement, fortified food, or skin cream.
On a related note, theres a strong likelihood the corn used is genetically modified. If you want non-GMO ascorbic acid, then make sure the packaging is labeled as such. Organic food-derived sources will always be non-GMO.
Risk Of Too Much Vitamin C
Any unnecessary vitamin C will be flushed out through urine, But It is important to keep it in a limit. Let see what expert suggests about the risk of too much vitamin C.
According to Dr. Andrew Weil,
When obtained from food sources and supplements in the recommended dosages, vitamin C is generally regarded as safe. Side effects are rarely reported, but include nausea, vomiting, heartburn, abdominal cramps, and headache.
For most healthy individuals, the body can only hold and use about 250mg of vitamin C a day, and any excess is lost though urine. At times of illness, during recovery from injury, or under conditions of increased oxidative stress , the body can use greater amounts.
High doses of vitamin C may contribute to the formation of kidney stones, as well as cause severe diarrhea, nausea, and gastritis.
Mayoclinic Website Suggests, Too much dietary vitamin C is unlikely to be harmful, megadoses of vitamin C supplements may cause:
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Whats The Best Way To Take Vitamin C
Both experts stress that the best way to take vitamin C is through food. Whole foods contain a vitamin and micronutrient complex which cannot be fully replicated in vitamin supplements, says Dr. Serino. Also, your body absorbs more of the vitamin through food than through a supplement.
In my experience, most people do not need to supplement with vitamin C since it is abundant in food, says Greaves. The best sources of vitamin C are foods like bell pepper, brussels sprouts, strawberries, and citrus fruit. For example: A half cup of raw red pepper has about 95 mg of vitamin C.
If you dont like any of that stuff, you can eat a medium potato and a cup of red cabbage to get your daily dose. If youve got guava around, youll get 206 mg from eating just one!
Make sure to eat a few servings of fruits and vegetables each day, and youll likely have more than enough vitamin C to make your body happy. Its important to know that research doesnt show any benefit of supplementing with vitamin C beyond the recommended daily intake, says Greaves. So more is definitely not better!
How Much Vitamin C Should You Take
Vitamin C is a water-soluble nutrient with many vital functions in your body.
It helps strengthen your immune system, aids collagen production and wound healing, and acts as an antioxidant to protect your cells from free radical damage .
Vitamin C is also known as L-ascorbic acid, or simply ascorbic acid.
Unlike other animals, humans cannot synthesize vitamin C on their own. Therefore, you must get enough of it from foods or supplements to maintain good health (
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Does Vitamin C Lower Chronic Disease Incidence Mortality Or Both
Coronary artery disease and stroke are the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in the United States and other westernized populations. Cardiovascular disease is responsible for nearly one million deaths every year in the United States alone, at the cost of > $15 billion in health care and lost productivity . Major risk factors associated with cardiovascular disease are age, male sex, smoking, hypercholesterolemia, hypertension, family history, obesity, and physical inactivity . Many epidemiologic studies have shown inverse associations between antioxidant intake, particularly vitamin E, and cardiovascular disease . Over the past 15 y, several prospective cohort studies have been published on the association between vitamin C intake and the risk of cardiovascular disease . Some of these were reviewed previously by Enstrom and Gey , as well as by others . Because the purpose of this review is to propose an RDA for vitamin C based on chronic disease incidence, only studies that stated actual amounts of vitamin C intake are considered further here.
Can You Take 1000 Milligrams Of Vitamin C Daily
The short answer is yes, you can absolutely take 1,000 milligrams of vitamin C daily . And, based on reported benefits from this higher dosage, it’s probably a good idea to consider a higher potency source of C in your targeted nutrition regimen.
Not only does vitamin C have a high safety profile, but higher doses may also yield incrementally beneficial health benefits. For example, in a study published in Free Radical Biology & Medicine, researchers wanted to see if vitamin C could reduce C-reactive protein , a marker of the inflammatory response. High levels of CRP can indicate there may be some underlying health concerns increasing inflammatory actions that you may be unaware of.
For this study, a group of healthy nonsmokers was divided into groups. One group received 1,000 milligrams of vitamin C per day and the other received a placebo. After two months, participants in the vitamin C group experienced a 16.7 to 25.3% decrease in CRP levels compared to their baseline at the start of the study.*
Fascinatingly, the unique vitamin C/lipid/citrus bioflavonoid trio discussed earlier has also been shown to reduce CRP levels at 1,000 milligrams and better than other forms of vitamin C.*
Of course, it’s always best to discuss dosage recommendations with your personal health care provider, as they know your medical history and will be able to identify any contraindications.
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A Vitamin C Smoothie Recipe For Immune Protection
While supplements for immunity can definitely help keep your health in fighting shape, you can also find alternative ways to amp up your intake of protective nutrients. One of the tastiest options among them is a vitamin-packed smoothie.
Can A Vitamin C Supplement Really Keep You From Getting Sick
Despite it’s popularity as a remedy for the common cold, there’s actually no evidence to suggest that a large dose of vitamin C can actually prevent one or any other type of illness, for that matter.
And while you may have heard that a large dose of vitamin C can slightly reduce the duration of a cold, this only applies if you take that large dose every singleday of the year even when you’re not sick. This means that if you rip that vitamin C packet open after your symptoms begin, there’s no evidence to suggest it’ll actually shorten the length of your cold.
As it turns out, boosting your immune system is more complicated than just downing a packet or a pill. And while vitamin C does play an important role in supporting your immune system, it doesn’t take megadoses like the ones found in supplements which often contain 1667% more vitamin C than you actually need every day.
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Vitamins And Minerals For Older Adults
Vitamins help your body grow and work the way it should. There are 13 essential vitamins vitamins A, C, D, E, K, and the B vitamins .
Vitamins have different jobs to help keep the body working properly. Some vitamins help you resist infections and keep your nerves healthy, while others may help your body get energy from food or help your blood clot properly. By following the Dietary Guidelines, you will get enough of most of these vitamins from food.
Like vitamins, minerals also help your body function. Minerals are elements that our bodies need to function that can be found on the earth and in foods. Some minerals, like iodine and fluoride, are only needed in very small quantities. Others, such as calcium, magnesium, and potassium, are needed in larger amounts. As with vitamins, if you eat a varied diet, you will probably get enough of most minerals.
What Does Recommended Daily Allowance Mean
The recommended daily allowance for vitamins and minerals is the average daily intake a person needs to avoid deficiencies and stay healthy. Men and women often have different vitamin and mineral recommendations.
There are different ways to measure the RDA. Vitamins and minerals that are needed in larger doses are measured in milligrams and those that the body needs less of are measured in micrograms. There are 1,000 micrograms in 1 milligram. Each vitamin and mineral has a specific RDA.
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How Much Vitamin C Can You Take A Day
Subsequently, one may also ask, can you give Emergen C to a child?
The only Emergen-C product safe for kids to consume is the Emergen-C Kidz Complete Multi-Vitamin drink mix, clearly labeled with the word Kidz. Children 4 and older can safely consume one packet daily with 4 to 6 oz. of water. Children who consume more than these amounts increase their risk of a vitamin overdose.
Can you overdose on vitamin C?
Vitamin C Overdose. Side effects from too much vitamin C are very rare. This is because the body cannot store the vitamin. Studies have shown, however, that vitamin C amounts greater than 2,000 mg/day can lead to nausea and diarrhea.
How many milligrams of vitamin C should you take when sick?
The RDA or recommended daily allowance is 90 mg for men and 75 mg for women. High doses of vitamin C may cause kidney stones, nausea, and diarrhea. If youre unsure about taking vitamin C for colds, talk to your health care provider.
Megadoses May Lead To Kidney Stones
According to the National Institutes of Health Office of Dietary Supplements, the highest recommended dietary allowance for vitamin C is 120 mg per day. Thats only for 19+ year old women who are breastfeeding. Smokers are also advised to use an extra 35 mg per day.
For non-smokers and those who are not pregnant, the RDA is 90 mg for men and 75 mg for women.
All of those amounts are said to be much higher than the minimum required to protect against vitamin C deficiency.
Being water soluble, you can use more safely and there is plenty of science to suggest benefits of doing so. How much vitamin C should I take per day?
The following are the Tolerable Upper Intake Levels according to the same U.S. government source.
|Tolerable Upper Intake Levels for Vitamin C|
|*Formula and food should be the only sources of vitamin C for infants.|
In adult men and women, 2,000 mg per day of ascorbic acid is considered to be the maximum safe amount to use on a long-term basis. This limit is for the total combined intake coming from both food and supplement sources. Exceeding this dose will increase the risk of side effects.
What is megadosing? There is no official definition but generally its when nutrients are eaten or consumed in amounts far greater than the Tolerable Upper Intake Levels.
Lets begin with what might be happening with even lower amounts.
Of course the next logical question is, how many milligrams of the vitamin were they taking per day?
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What Dosage Of Vitamin C Is Too Much Anyway
According to the National Institutes of Health, vitamin C has low toxicity and its rather unusual to cause serious adverse effects. Even at high intakes. The maximum dosage of vitamin C for adults is 2,000 mg daily.
Better consult your doctor before taking any supplements. Especially if youre taking other medication. Vitamin C supplements may interact with other drugs.
Cope With Stress By Upping Your Vitamin C Intake
Certain sources of Vitamin C can help prevent and treat high levels of stress, along with the common cold. Vitamin C is an antioxidant that helps fight off foreign invaders throughout the body to keep our immune systems in shape. It’s also helpful for repairing physical and emotional levels of stress due to the way it lowers inflammation in the body. Inflammation can both cause and worsen stress, therefore it’s crucial to get enough Vitamin C in your diet so you manage stress easier. Many athletes also take Vitamin C supplements due to the way it helps repair muscles after harsh workouts that lead to inflammation. If you’re suffering physical or mental stress, try adding some of these sources of Vitamin C to your diet. Because life’s too short to be a ball of stress all the time, girls!
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What Is The Recommended Intake For Vitamin C
According to the National Academies, the recommended intake for vitamin C is currently set at 75 milligrams per day for adult women and 90 milligrams daily for adult men. That said, research shows that higher intakes may provide better overall health outcomesespecially in regards to immune function and response.*
When looking at the research, at least 200 milligrams per day seems to be the amount to keep your plasma saturated with vitamin C, optimize the amount of C in your cells and tissues, because low vitamin C levelssuboptimal statuses like insufficiency and deficiencycan have negative health implications.*
That said, vitamin C levels naturally become depleted due to the metabolic demand of immune and inflammatory responses, so taking doses higher than 200 milligrams may be even more effective at supporting vitamin C’s multidimensional roles across all the organs and systems of the body.*
Indeed, a study pooling multiple cohorts published in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition found that individuals with the highest daily vitamin Ca median intake of 756 milligramshad a 24% lower likelihood of having heart-related complaints than people taking the lowest amount, which was a median intake of 81 milligrams per day.* In other words, higher levels of vitamin C net cardioprotective benefits.*