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Vitamin C Is Water Soluble

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Water Soluble Vitamins: B-complex vitamins, vitamin C – Nutrition Essentials for Nursing
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    Vitamin C

    Vitamin C, also known as ascorbic acid, is a water soluble vitamin. That means that it is a vitamin that dissolves in water. Water soluble vitamins are easily carried to the bodys tissues but are not stored in the body. This is important for you to know because these vitamins should be replenished regularly by your diet to meet your bodys nutrient needs. In fact, there are nine water soluble vitamins in the human diet:

    Vitamin B1 , vitamin B2 , vitamin B3 , vitamin B5 , vitamin B6, vitamin B7 , vitamin B9, vitamin B12 and vitamin C.

    Vitamin C is a main antioxidant in the body and is required for the biosynthesis of collagen, L-carnitine, and is involved in protein metabolism. As an antioxidant, vitamin C can help to regenerate vitamin E in the body. There is research being conducted on vitamin C for its potential benefit to prevent or delay the development of certain cancers, heart disease, as well as others where oxidative stress plays a role.

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    Linus Pauling Institute Recommendation

    Combined evidence from metabolic, pharmacokinetic, and observational studies, and from randomized controlled trials supports consuming sufficient vitamin C to achieve plasma concentrations of at least 60 mol/L. While most generally healthy young adults can achieve these plasma concentrations with daily vitamin C intake of at least 200 mg/day, some individuals may have a lower vitamin C absorptive capacity than what is currently documented. Thus, the Linus Pauling Institute recommends a vitamin C intake of 400 mg daily for adults to ensure replete tissue concentrations an amount substantially higher than the RDA yet with minimal risk of side effects.

    This recommendation can be met through food if the diet includes at least several servings of vitamin C-rich fruit and vegetables as part of the daily recommended fruit and vegetable intake . Most multivitamin supplements provide at least 60 mg of vitamin C.

    Older adults

    Copyright 2000-2022 Linus Pauling Institute

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    Molecular Structure Of Vitamin C

    The molecular structure of vitamin C resembles that of the five-ringed monosaccharide, ribose, although vitamin C has several additional features. Firstly, the five-membered carbon ring of vitamin C is unsaturated, meaning that two hydroxyl groups are attached to double-bonded carbon atoms. This is not the case with the ribose structure, in which each carbon atom is saturated with hydrogen atoms , so that two single bonds exist instead of one double bond. Furthermore, carbon one of the vitamin C molecule is unsaturated, with the carbon atom double bonded to the oxygen atom. Again, in the ribose molecule, that double bond does not exist due to saturation of the carbon atom with hydrogen atoms.

    Vitamin Cs Role In The Body

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    Vitamin C, also known as ascorbic acid, is necessary for the growth, development and repair of all body tissues. Its involved in many body functions, including formation of collagen, absorption of iron, the proper functioning of the immune system, wound healing, and the maintenance of cartilage, bones, and teeth.

    Vitamin C is one of many antioxidants that can protect against damage caused by harmful molecules called free radicals, as well as toxic chemicals and pollutants like cigarette smoke. Free radicals can build up and contribute to the development of health conditions such as cancer, heart disease, and arthritis.

    The body doesnt store vitamin C, so overdose is not a concern. But its still important not to exceed the safe upper limit of 2,000 milligrams a day to avoid stomach upset and diarrhea.

    Vitamin C is one of the âwater-solubleâ vitamins. Because your body doesnât store them, you need to keep them in your diet all the time to maintain healthy levels. Eat vitamin-C-rich fruits and vegetables raw, or cook them with minimal water so you dont lose some of the water-soluble vitamin in the cooking water.

    Vitamin C is easily absorbed both in food and in pill form, and it can enhance the absorption of iron when the two are eaten together.

    Deficiency of vitamin C is relatively rare, and primarily seen in malnourished adults. In extreme cases, it can lead to scurvy characterized by weakness, anemia, bruising, bleeding, and loose teeth.

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    Raw Vs Cooked Which Contains More Vitamins And Minerals

    Of course, in the grand scheme of a well-balanced, nutrient-dense, varied, whole foods diet, the cooked vs. raw debate isnt that critical for most people.

    Where this can become a consideration is for vitamin and mineral deficiencies . These may be due to digestion or absorption issues, or avoidance of certain foods .

    And Ill tell you that the answer isnt as simple as raw is always better or cooked is always better. As with most nutrition science, it depends on several factors. Some vitamins are destroyed in cooking, while others become easier to absorb .

    Here is the skinny on vitamins and minerals in raw foods versus cooked foods.


    As a general rule, water soluble nutrients, like vitamin C and the B vitamins, found mostly in fruits and vegetables, are best eaten raw.

    The reason why is two-fold.

    First, when these nutrients are heated, they tend to degrade this is from any heat, be it steaming, boiling, roasting, or frying. Vitamin C and the B vitamins are a bit more delicate and susceptible to heat than many other nutrients.

    Of course, the obvious way to combat these nutrient losses is to eat foods high vitamin C and B vitamins in their raw form or to cook them for as short a time as possible .

    Fun fact: Raw spinach can contain three times the amount of vitamin C as cooked spinach.

    But, how much loss are we talking about? Well, of course, it ranges but can go from as low as 15%, up to over 50%.



    Story Of Ascorbic Acid

    Vitamin C, or Ascorbic acid, is one of the most effective and safest nutrients. It is a water-soluble vitamin. It is a powerful antioxidant for the synthesis of collagen, which helps to make blood vessels and body muscles strong. The human body doesnât have the capacity to generate Vitamin C. Therefore, it needs to be received through food and other supplements.

    How to Use

    Take 1/4 teaspoon daily with water, juice or smoothie of your choice.

    Note: Each individual requires different consumption quantity. Please consult your physician for the best results.




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    Tryptophan To Niacin Interconversion

    For calculating the adequacy of a diet as a source of niacin, a factor is needed for estimating the contribution of tryptophan to meeting the need for niacin. In four studies in which niacin status was judged by urinary excretion of niacin metabolites, the quantities of supplementary tryptophan required to give the same response as 1 mg of niacin ranged from 39 to 86 mg . The convention is to consider 60 mg of tryptophan as equivalent to 1 mg of niacin, and to regard each to be 1 niacin equivalent for calculating both dietary contributions and recommended allowances . The extent of conversion is, to some extent, under hormonal control and appears to increase during pregnancy or when contraceptive pills are used.

    How To Optimize Absorption

    Types of Vitamins (Water Soluble, Fat Soluble Vitamins) | Functions of Vitamins| Deficiency Diseases

    When youre taking a supplement, you want to make sure that your body actually uses it. If youre taking purely ascorbic acid , Michels recommends maximizing your vitamin C absorption by splitting up your dose of vitamin C throughout the day.

    Take it in two or three doses, he reports. That way, your system can more intentionally and actively absorb all of that essential C.

    When it comes to taking a higher dose of vitamin C and making sure youre absorbing most of those milligrams, choosing the right form of vitamin C is the key. mindbodygreens vitamin C potency+ utilizes a unique and clinically researched trio of vitamin C, lipids, and citrus bioflavonoids for this exact reason.

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    Dietary Sources Of Vitamin C

    Citrus fruits are great sources of vitamin C and so are many vegetables. In fact, British sailors in the past were often referred to as limeys as they carried sacks of limes onto ships to prevent scurvy. Vitamin C is not found in significant amounts in animal-based foods.

    Because vitamin C is water-soluble, it leaches away from foods considerably during cooking, freezing, thawing, and canning. Up to 50 percent of vitamin C can be boiled away. Therefore, to maximize vitamin C intake from foods, you should eat fruits and vegetables raw or lightly steamed. For the vitamin C content of various foods, see Table 9.12 Vitamin C Content of Various Foods.

    Table 9.12 Vitamin C Content of Various Foods

    17 28

    Source: Dietary Supplement Fact Sheet: Vitamin C. National Institutes of Health, Office of Dietary Supplements. . Updated June 24, 2011. Accessed October 5, 2017.

    Helps Prevent Iron Deficiency

    Iron is an important nutrient that has a variety of functions in the body. Its essential for making red blood cells and transporting oxygen throughout the body.

    Vitamin C supplements can help improve the absorption of iron from the diet. Vitamin C assists in converting iron that is poorly absorbed, such as plant-based sources of iron, into a form that is easier to absorb .

    This is especially useful for people on a meat-free diet, as meat is a major source of iron.

    In fact, simply consuming 100 mg of vitamin C may improve iron absorption by 67% .

    As a result, vitamin C may help reduce the risk of anemia among people prone to iron deficiency.

    In one study, 65 children with mild iron deficiency anemia were given a vitamin C supplement. Researchers found that the supplement alone helped control their anemia .

    If you have low iron levels, consuming more vitamin-C-rich foods or taking a vitamin C supplement may help improve your blood iron levels.


    Vitamin C can improve the absorption of iron that is poorly absorbed, such as iron from meat-free sources. It may also reduce the risk of iron deficiency.

    is zinc a water soluble vitamin.

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    Assessment Of Folate Status

    Well-nourished individuals excrete daily up to 40 µg of folate in the urine and approximately 200 µg in feces . The folate content of bile is approximately 5 times that of serum, but enterohepatic recirculation tends to conserve the body pool of folate . Krumdieck et al. found that after an equilibration period following an oral dose of radioactive folate, radioactive fecal and urinary losses were approximately equal. Nonradioactive fecal loss greatly exceeds urinary folate excretion, indicating that feces also contain folate synthesized by intestinal bacteria. Fecal folate is therefore not a reliable indicator of turnover, intake, or absorption.

    Herbert et al. estimated the adult male’s total folate pool to be 7.5 ± 2.5 mg, a coefficient of variation of 33%. Liver folate is a major part of this total . Among 370 male and 190 female subjects, distributed among age groups ranging from 1 to more than 80 years old, autopsy data revealed an average hepatic folate concentration of about 7 µg/g liver which did not vary greatly by age or sex . Morphologic evidence of folate deficiency is not manifest until liver levels fall below 1 µg/g . Red cell folate reflects liver folate fairly closely , and average daily dietary folate intake correlates significantly with red cell folate .

    Basis For Establishing Allowances

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    In patients with pernicious anemia, daily injections of 0.1 µg of cyanocobalamin are reported to produce suboptimal hematologic responses , whereas doses of 0.5 to 1.0 µg/day have maintained patients with pernicious anemia in complete hematologic and neurologic remission . Patients with pernicious anemia or those who have undergone total gastrectomy are not, however, good models for determining normal dietary requirements, because they are unable to reabsorb the B12 excreted in the bile. Nonetheless, they do provide information on the gross requirement for absorbed B12.

    Other evidence derives from studies of persons whose diets are low or deficient in vitamin B12. Deficiency can be, but rarely is, produced by a strict vegetarian diet devoid of meat, eggs, and dairy products. An Indian woman resident of London developed deficiency with a diet containing 0.5 µg of vitamin B12 per day . Intakes in four other deficiency cases ranged from 0.07 to 0.25 µg/day . Only 21 of 431 Australian vegetarians had unacceptable blood levels of B12 at an average intake of 0.26 ± 0.23 µg/day , and none of these developed deficiency symptoms over a 1-year period of evaluation . An intake of 0.3 to 0.65 µg/day in food produced satisfactory hematologic responses in vitamin B12-deficient Indian patients . Although serum concentrations of vitamin B12 remained below normal in these cases, bone marrow became normoblastic, and there was no anemia.

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    Vitamins And Their Uses

    With the exception of vitamin D, our bodies get the vitamins we need for good health from the food that we eat:

    Found in many foods. Good sources are liver, capsicum and carrots.
    B Found in whole, unprocessed grains as well as legumes and yeast.Vitamin B12 is not available from plant products, but good sources are liver and tuna.
    C Found in many foods. Good sources are blackcurrants, chili peppers, parsley, kiwifruit and broccoli.
    D Very few foods contain vitamin D. Our bodies synthesise vitamin D from cholesterol when our skin is exposed to sunlight .
    E -tocopherol is the most biologically active form of vitamin E and is found in vegetable oils such as sunflower oil, safflower oil and wheat germ oil.-tocopherol, while not as biologically active is far more common in the western diet as it is found in margarine, dressings, corn oil and soybean oil.
    K Found in green leafy vegetables such as spinach, cauliflower, cabbage and broccoli. Also found in certain vegetable oils such as canola oil, olive oil and soybean oil.

    It is most unlikely that you would be expected to “learn” the structures of vitamin molecules, but you will be expected to identify the main features of the molecules, that is, note how many polar functional groups and the length of the hydrocarbon chain:

    • Polar functional groups include carbonyl groups , hydroxyl groups , and amine, or amino, groups
    • Hydrocarbon chains, made up of only carbon and hydrogen atoms, are considered to be non-polar.

    Physical Properties Of Carbohydrates

    Nonetheless, vitamin C is classified as a carbohydrate. The chemistry of carbohydrates is mainly the combined chemistry of two functional groups: the hydroxyl group and the carbonyl group, both of which are water soluble. Solubility of these groups in water arises because both water and these functional groups are polar molecules, meaning that they posses a positive and negative charge. Because opposites attract, when we introduce two polar substances together, they will become attracted to one another, with the positive pole of one molecule binding to the negative pole of the other molecule. This is dissolution.

    In the case of the hydroxyl functional group, the oxygen atom is more electronegative than the hydrogen atom, so it has a strong tendency to pull electrons in a hydrogen-oxygen bond toward itself. This makes the oxygen atom negatively charged and the hydrogen atom positively charged. This is also the case with the oxygen and hydrogen atoms of the water molecule. When mixed together, a negatively charged oxygen atom in water will attract a positively charged hydrogen atom of the hydroxyl group, separating it from its own oxygen atom and dragging it into the aqueous phase.

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