Histological Examination Of Neurodegeneration
Mice were anaesthetized with pentobarbital and transcardially perfused with 4% paraformaldehyde. Brains were carefully dissected out, post-fixed for 1.5 h in 4% paraformaldehyde, cryoprotected, embedded in 12% gelatin, rapidly frozen, and sectioned at 40 µm using a freezing microtome or stored at -80°C until use. Brain tissues of mice from different dietary regimes were embedded together, in one gelatin block per time point, to avoid fluctuations in antibody affinity. To quantitatively assess protein regulation, all immunohistochemical procedures were performed simultaneously for each antibody.The extent of astrogliosis was assessed using rabbit anti-GFAP as primary antibody with a biotinylated secondary antibody from Vector Laboratories . All sections were processed free floating using the ABC method with diaminobenzidine as the chromogen. Immunoperoxidase-stained sections were imaged using the NanoZoomer Digital slide scanner with the NDP view software . Mean intensities were quantified using Fiji software.The extent of neuronal genomic stress was assessed using rabbit anti-p53 with Cy3-conjugated goat-anti-rabbit and DAPI for cell nuclei. Immunofluorescence sections were analyzed using a Zeiss LSM700 confocal microscope. P53 quantification was performed using Fiji software.
Biological Properties Of Vitamin E
Vitamin E is a collective term that describes a family of eight naturally-occurring homologues with potent antioxidant properties. The group is composed of four tocopherols and four tocotrienols, each of which has an , , and isoform. All eight congeners are differentially distributed within food sources such as vegetable oils, grains and various nuts and seeds38 and -tocopherol is the primary isoform normally found within vitamin E supplements.39 The recommended dietary allowance for -tocopherol is currently 15 mg/day in adults with a recommended upper intake level of 1000 mg/day for supplemental vitamin E as the highest dose unlikely to result in haemorrhage – however, high-doses have been used in a number of studies of vitamin E supplementation to date.32
Memory Health And The Blood
The brain is a vital organ, and it needs the proper nutrients to function correctly. Only a limited number of ingredients can cross through your blood-brain barrier, which they must do to provide cognitive benefits, enhance memory, and support the long-term health of this vital organ.
The benefits of Lutein and the related carotenoids in the Memory Health supplement are that they can be measured in the body without invasive tests. The Washington Post says, “While most nutrients from foods or supplements are challenging to trace once they enter the cavern of the human body, lutein and zeaxanthin are 100 times more concentrated within macula than elsewhere.”
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Prevention Of Dementia In Adults With Mci
Older adults with MCI have an elevated risk of dementia . Vitamin E supplementation has been examined as a treatment option to reduce the rate of progression to dementia. A randomized controlled trial was conducted comparing vitamin E supplementation with placebo and with donepezil alone. Upon 3 years follow-up, there was no difference in the probability of progression from MCI to AD with vitamin E supplementation .
Better Ways To Boost Brain Health
Someday researchers might identify a blend of ingredients that does wonders for your gray matter. But in the meantime, there are more effective ways to keep your brain healthy:
- Diet. Nutrition is one of the best ways to protect your brain, Smith says. She recommends a diet rich in produce with healthy oils from olive oil, nuts and seeds and fatty cold-water fish. Aim for a colorful diet, with dark leafy greens, as well as orange and red fruits and veggies, she says. Colorful foods contain antioxidants that may protect the brain.
- Limit alcohol. Too much alcohol can increase the risk of cognitive decline, she says.
- Physical activity. Regular exercise has a strong association with the prevention of cognitive problems, Smith says. Try to get at least 150 minutes of activity a week.
- Sleep. Being sleep-deprived is linked to cognitive decline, so prioritize your slumber.
- Socialize. Social interaction is closely tied with maintaining cognitive function as we get older. Try to spend time with others and limit isolation, Smith advises. Whenever you can, share meals with friends and family.
- Treat health problems. Chronic health problems like Type 2 diabetes and high blood pressure can increase the chances of cognitive decline and dementia. To lower your risk, work with your doctor to manage any illnesses.
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Brain Health Supplements: Do They Work
Many of the ingredients in brain health supplements have been tied to brain health in some way. But much of the evidence comes from research on food and diet, not supplements, Smith says.
There are more than 25,000 bioactive substances in food, which work together to protect your body including your brain and processes that affect your brain, Smith says. Taking just one or two of those vitamins or chemicals isnt going to be a cure-all.
Still, you might be wondering about the link between common brain booster ingredients and brain health. Heres what the science says.
The Use Of Vitamin E In The Treatment Of Mild Cognitive Impairment And Alzheimer’s Disease
Vitamin E is found in a variety of foods, including vegetable oils and fats, nuts and seeds. Some animal and non-interventional studies have suggested it might have a role in the prevention or treatment of Alzheimer’s disease . However, evidence has linked vitamin E with potentially serious side effects and even an increased risk of death. In this review, we looked for evidence about the effect of vitamin E on people who had either dementia due to AD or milder problems with memory or thinking . People with MCI have an increased risk of developing dementia.
We searched for clinical trials published up to April 2016 which had randomly allocated people with dementia due to AD or with MCI to treatment with vitamin E supplements or a placebo . We found three trials that investigated the effects of vitamin E on people with AD, but we could extract data from only one of these trials . We found only one trial with 516 participants which investigated the effects of vitamin E on people with MCI. The quality of these two trials was generally good.
From limited evidence, we found nothing to suggest that there are either benefits or harms from vitamin E supplements. As the quality of evidence was only moderate, further trials are needed to confirm the findings. It is possible that different types or doses of vitamin E might have different effects.
To assess the efficacy of vitamin E in the treatment of MCI and dementia due to AD.
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How To Get Enough Vitamin E
Now that we know the facts, let discuss a healthy diet, high in vitamin E. The foods richest in vitamin E are nuts and seeds, whole grains, and vegetable oils, such as corn, soybean, and safflower oils. It is also found in dark-colored fruits such as blueberries, avocados and blackberries, and vegetables such as spinach and bell peppers. You may also try fortifying your diet with Vitamin E through supplementation. The Memory Health formula provides 15mg of natural Vitamin E , which is the recommended dietary allowance for vitamin E according to the National Institute of Health.
Vitamin C And Brain Function
Vitamin C is an essential water-soluble vitamin that must be obtained from dietary sources as it cannot be produced by the body. Research has demonstrated various roles of vitamin C in the brain, which include supporting neurodevelopment, neurotransmitter function, angiogenesis , and antioxidant function. Additionally, vitamin C supports regeneration of other antioxidants, such as glutathione and vitamin E.
One review study that examined the relationship between vitamin C levels and cognitive performance in both healthy and cognitively impaired individuals found that the cognitively intact individuals had higher blood concentrations of vitamin C.
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A Discussion Of Vitamins For Memory And Cognition Would Not Be Complete Without Mention Of Omega
These essential fats are found in fish and many good fat foods such as avocados and nuts. They are felt to have anti-inflammatory effects. Some studies suggest a benefit to these good fats and some show no association with cognitive decline. It is our belief that Omega3s are generally good for you. They are best found via natural food sources. If you feel the need to take a supplement be cautious to find one that does not have high levels of Mercury.
The following link will provide a healthful and delicious recipe for Salmon with Indian Spices. This recipe is chock full of Vitamin D , Calcium from the yogurt, Omega 3s, and turmeric.
On a daily basis, a good Personalized Multivitamin will address your individual needs for vitamins. to take our vitamin quiz about your diet, lifestyle, personal and family health histories to get your custom all in one vitamin and Find Your Vous!
The statements made in this article have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. The products offered by Vous Vitamin® are not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease.
Nothing contained herein is intended to be a diagnosis or constitute medical advice. The symptoms described in this Blog may be a result of a serious medical condition which requires medical treatment. You should consult with your doctor if you are experiencing any of the symptoms mentioned in this Blog and before beginning any vitamin or supplement regimen.
Memory Enhancers That May Be Unsafe
Before adding any memory supplements to your diet, have a pharmacist check for potential interactions with any drugs or supplements you’re taking, advises Lausier.
“And, remember that ‘natural’ isn’t always safe,” she says. “When you think about nature, you often think of beautiful and harmless. But think about a lion and a wildebeest — that’s nature, too.”
- Bacopa. Used for millennia in India, bacopa is an Ayurvedic herb that shows some promise for memory problems, says Lausier. But it is an example of a memory supplement that carries a higher risk of drug interactions. For this reason, she doesn’t recommend using it until further study is conducted.
- DHEA. A hormone that declines with age, DHEA has garnered lots of interest. Taken long-term or in high doses, however, it may increase the risk for certain types of cancer, as well as other serious side effects.
As you evaluate other potential memory supplements, keep in mind that the FDA does not strictly regulate herbs and supplements. It treats them like foods rather than medications. Unlike drug manufacturers, the makers of supplements donât have to show their products are safe or effective before selling them on the market.
This makes it harder for you to assess their strength, purity, and safety. Fugh-Berman advises doing your own research on effectiveness and adverse effects, using reliable, unbiased sources.
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The Memory Health Supplement
Memory Health® is a brain health and memory support supplement that contains ingredients shown to improve memory and cognition and stave off neurodegenerative disorders. Memory Health® was developed by scientists looking at how nutrition plays an essential role in the brains health. The supplements contain carotenoids and Omega-3 fatty acids .
Carotenoids are plant pigments found on leafy vegetables such as spinach, while DHA can be obtained from fish oil. They help neutralize harmful free radicals, which can lead to the breakdown of healthy cells in your body. These three antioxidants also reduce oxidative stress on the brain by helping minimize inflammation.
Memory Health®, unlike other brain supplements, was developed following over 20 years of scientific research on supplemental carotenoids. The supplement has been tested in clinical trials for people with Alzheimer’s disease and healthy brains and showed significant improvements to the health of everyone who took it daily over twelve months, as published by the Journal of Alzheimers Disease.
Vitamin Deficiencies That Can Cause Memory Loss
Unhealthy meals are one of the major causes of memory loss. Certain chemicals, such as nitrites, can age your brain and put you at risk of Alzheimers.
Furthermore, you are at risk of memory problems if you dont get enough nutrients. Vitamin deficiencies are among the top causes of memory loss. But which vitamins are particularly important for your brain health?
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Vitamin E Needed To Prevent Loss Of Critically Important Molecule In The Brain
DHA is a polyunsaturated fatty acid and is identified by experts as one of the most important nutrients obtained from omega-3 fatty acids. These acids are commonly found in foods such as fish oils, flax, walnuts, eggs and leafy dark green vegetables like spinach.
Human brains are very enriched in DHA but they cant make it, they get it from the liver, explains Dr. Traber. The particular molecules that help carry it there are these lyso PLs, and the amount of those compounds is being greatly reduced when vitamin E intake is insufficient. This sets the stage for cellular membrane damage and neuronal death.
Dr. Traber states that other research has demonstrated that the rate of Alzheimers disease progression can be reduced with increased vitamin E intake. However, she suggests that the neurological disorder may just indicate long-term neuronal damage that has already occurred.
The researchers will next turn their attention to examining the effects of vitamin E deficiency on zebrafish embryos. The present study was partly funded by the National Institutes of Health .
Theres increasingly clear evidence that vitamin E is associated with brain protection, and now were starting to better understand some of the underlying mechanisms, concludes Dr. Traber. This research showed that vitamin E is needed to prevent a dramatic loss of a critically important molecule in the brain, and helps explain why vitamin E is needed for brain health.
What The Leaves Say About Ginkgo Biloba
The fan-shaped leaves of the ginkgo tree are used in traditional Chinese medicine to treat all kinds of ailments. In the United States, the extract from the leaves is sold as a supplement commonly called ginkgo biloba. One of its main selling points is as a memory enhancer. However, as with other brain health supplements, the science doesn’t support the claims.
One of the largest clinical trials that explored the possible link was the Ginkgo Evaluation of Memory study. Researchers recruited more than 3,000 older adults, average age 79, 54% of whom were men, with normal cognitive function or mild cognitive impairment. Everyone was given either 120 milligrams of ginkgo or a placebo twice a day for almost six years. The results found that ginkgo biloba did not lower the overall rate of developing dementia.
“Most supplements are not tested rigorously in clinical trials,” says Dr. Gad Marshall, associate medical director at the Center for Alzheimer Research and Treatment at Brigham and Women’s Hospital. “However, ginkgo has been tested thoroughly for its potential to prevent dementia, and there is strong evidence that it does not prevent memory decline or dementia and therefore should not be taken for that purpose.”
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Memory Supplements With Potential
Although there are a variety of “brain boosters” on the market — many chockfull of multiple substances — most are lacking research to support their memory-enhancing claims.
Ginkgo biloba is one that shows more promise than many others and is commonly used in Europe for a type of dementia resulting from reduced blood flow, Lausier says. “Ginkgo biloba tends to improve blood flow in small vessels.”
“A couple of meta-analyses and systematic reviews show that ginkgo biloba is helpful for dementia in about the same range as drugs being pushed very heavily to treat Alzheimer’s,” says Adriane Fugh-Berman, MD, an associate professor in the complementary and alternative medicine Master’s program of the department of physiology and biophysics at Georgetown University School of Medicine.
Unfortunately, that’s not all that successful, she adds. Ginkgo doesnât seem to help prevent dementia. But in people who already have dementia, it may either improve symptoms or stabilize symptoms so that they donât get worse. In addition, some but not all studies show benefits in mood, alertness, and mental ability in healthy people who take ginkgo. More research needs to be done to be certain about these effects.
Here are a few other memory supplements that may also have some potential, but require much more study:
A Combination Of Nutrients
Many brain supplements focus on omega-3 fatty acids , vitamin E, various B vitamins, or various combinations. Why these?
There’s strong evidence that certain diets like the Mediterranean diet, the DASH diet, and the MIND diet can help improve cognitive function, according to Dr. Marshall.
“These diets contain foods with large amounts of these vitamins and minerals,” he says. “But what is not clear is whether it’s the combination of nutrients in these diets that’s beneficial, or whether it’s specific ones or even certain amounts, or some other factors.” Researchers have tried to answer these questions by testing how these individual nutrients affect cognitive health. So far the limited studies have found no evidence they help, with a few rare exceptions.
“Still, this doesn’t mean that the brain supplements may not work,” says Dr. Marshall. “It’s just that there is not much, if any, evidence from randomized clinical trials the gold standard for research on isolated vitamins or minerals and brain health.”
Here’s a summary of what science has found so far and what it means.
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Food For Thought: The Nutrition And Memory Connection
Your cognition, especially your memory, is directly impacted by your diet. This link is complex, and still not fully understood. Yet more and more brain researchers are highlighting how the standard Western diet is sabotaging memory and may be behind the rising statistics surrounding memory loss.
Research suggests that what we eat might have an impact on our ability to remember, warns Harvard Medical School.
For example, one study reported that people who ate diets heavy in red meat and other animal-based sources of saturated fats had significantly worsening memory over the course of five years. And multiple trials have found high-sugar diets triggered brain inflammation that led to memory impairments.
Its important to avoid foods that are linked to memory problems. Its equally important to eat a memory-boosting dietthe Mediterranean diet is strongly associated with better brain healthand fill any nutritional gaps in your diet with memory-boosting vitamin supplements.
Get the nutrients you need for better memory and brain health with the Heights Smart Supplement. It offers the highest quality nutrients that protect against memory loss, and help to enhance your memory if youre currently experiencing memory problems or memory impairment.