Vitamin C Transport And Compartmentalization In Cancer Cells
As we addressed before, the knowledge on vitamin C uptake capacity and the organelle requirements of this nutrient in the context of cancer is still incomplete. Most of what is known comes from the analysis of GLUTs, which even if they have been mainly studied in the context of glucose uptake capacities in cancer, have direct implications in DHA uptake. In this context, it has been well described that cancer tissues overexpress GLUTs, which leads to an increased capacity to acquire glucose .
SVCTs on the other hand have been poorly studied. Meanwhile SVCT1 does not appear to have relevance in cancer , different studies have proposed that SVCT2 has a major function in tumors. The first of them showed that breast tumors have higher levels of SVCT2 expression compared to normal cells . In fact, overexpression of this transporter led to an increased chemosensitivity to high dose of ascorbate, which resulted in augmented reactive oxygen species production and ulterior cell death. Oppositely, siRNA against SVCT2 render the cancer cells resistant to this treatment . Therefore, SVCT2 might be implicated in the ascorbate induced cancer cell death phenomena. Similar results were observed by two groups in cholangiocarcinoma cells , hepatocellular carcinoma and colon cancer cells , where SVCT2 expression determines the susceptibility to pharmacological ascorbate-induced cell death.
Starving Cancer Cells From The Inside
Making use of the cancer cells own metabolic pathways is key to the findings of Michael P. Lisanti, from the Biomedical Research Centre at the University of Salford in Manchester, U.K., and his colleagues.
In a cell model, they showed that cancer stem cells rely heavily on mitochondria for their metabolism. Mitochondria are small structures within cells that generate energy. Glycolysis and mitochondrial metabolism are intricately linked.
Once energy is released from glucose by glycolysis, the end product of this pathway, pyruvate, is taken into mitochondria, where it is the starting point for a series of biochemical reactions that release energy from the molecule.
Lisantis work is in agreement with the findings of Dr. Cantleys study: vitamin C induces oxidative stress in CSCs and inhibits a key enzyme involved in glycolysis.
No glycolysis means no pyruvate, which, in turn, means that the mitochondrial powerhouses cannot generate any energy. The CSCs starve as a result.
And in a follow-up study, the researchers used this knowledge to design a new way of killing CSCs by using a combination of antibiotics and vitamin C. Some antibiotics, such as doxycycline, affect how well mitochondria work.
Treating CSCs with this antibiotic knocked out mitochondrial function, leaving the cells dependent on glycolysis to generate enough energy to keep them alive. But hitting CSCs with a dose of vitamin C shut off that alternative by inhibiting glycolysis.
Evaluation Of Cam Therapies
It is important that the same scientific methods used to test conventional therapies are used to test CAM therapies. The National Cancer Institute and the National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health are sponsoring a number of clinical trials at medical centers to test CAM therapies for use in cancer.
Conventional approaches to cancer treatment have generally been studied for safety and effectiveness through a scientific process that includes clinical trials with large numbers of patients. Less is known about the safety and effectiveness of complementary and alternative methods. Few CAM therapies have been tested using demanding scientific methods. A small number of CAM therapies that were thought to be purely alternative approaches are now being used in cancer treatmentnot as cures, but as complementary therapies that may help patients feel better and recover faster. One example is acupuncture. According to a panel of experts at a National Institutes of Health meeting in November 1997, acupuncture has been found to help control nausea and vomiting caused by chemotherapy and pain related to surgery. However, some approaches, such as the use of laetrile, have been studied and found not to work and to possibly cause harm.
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Questions To Ask Your Health Care Provider About Cam
When considering complementary and alternative therapies, patients should ask their health care provider the following questions:
- What side effects can be expected?
- What are the risks related to this therapy?
- What benefits can be expected from this therapy?
- Do the known benefits outweigh the risks?
- Will the therapy affect conventional treatment?
- Is this therapy part of a clinical trial?
- If so, who is the sponsor of the trial?
- Will the therapy be covered by health insurance?
Why Fasting And Vitamin C Work Well In Tandem
The study also provided clues about why previous studies of vitamin C as a potential anticancer therapy showed limited efficacy. By itself, a vitamin C treatment appears to trigger the KRAS-mutated cells to protect cancer cells by increasing levels of ferritin, a protein that binds iron. But by reducing levels of ferritin, the scientists managed to increase vitamin Cs toxicity for the cancer cells. Amid this finding, the scientists also discovered that colorectal cancer patients with high levels of the iron-binding protein have a lower chance of survival.
In this study, we observed how fasting-mimicking diet cycles are able to increase the effect of pharmacological doses of vitamin C against KRAS-mutated cancers, said Maira Di Tano, a study co-author at the IFOM, FIRC Institute of Molecular Oncology in Milan. This occurs through the regulation of the levels of iron and of the molecular mechanisms involved in oxidative stress. The results particularly pointed to a gene that regulates iron levels: heme-oxygenase-1.
The research teams prior studies showed that fasting and a fasting-mimicking diet slow cancers progression and make chemotherapy more effective in tumor cells while protecting normal cells from chemotherapy-associated side effects. The combination enhances the immune systems anti-tumor response in breast cancer and melanoma mouse models.
The study was funded by Associazione Italiana Ricerca sul Cancro grant number 21820 and by NIA/NIH Grant # PO1 AG055369.
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The Controversial History Of High
Utilizing high doses of vitamin C as a cancer therapy is no exception to this controversy. Nearly 60 years ago Toronto physician William McCormick observed that cancer patients often presented with severely low levels of vitamin C in their blood and featured scurvy-like symptoms, leading him to postulate that vitamin C might protect against cancer by increasing collagen synthesis. In 1972, extending this theory, Ewan Cameron, a Scottish surgeon, hypothesized that ascorbate could suppress cancer development by inhibiting hyaluronidase, which otherwise weakens the extracellular matrix and enables cancer to metastasize. He began treating terminally ill cancer patients and published a case report of 50 patients in which some of the treated patients benefited from high dose vitamin C.
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Questions And Answers About High
Vitamin C is a nutrient that is found in food, such as oranges, grapefruit, papaya, peppers, and kale, or in dietary supplements. Vitamin C is an antioxidant and helps prevent damage to cells caused by free radicals. It also works with enzymes to play a key role in making collagen. Vitamin C is also called L-ascorbic acid or ascorbate.
Vitamin C may be given by IV infusion or taken by mouth. Much higher blood levels are reached when vitamin C is given intravenously. When given by intravenous infusion, vitamin C can reach higher levels in the blood than when it is taken by mouth.
In laboratory studies, tumor cells are used to test a substance to find out if it is likely to have any anticancer effects. In animal studies, tests are done to see if a drug, procedure, or treatment is safe and effective. Laboratory and animal studies are done in animals before a substance is tested in people.
Laboratory and animal studies have tested the effects of high-dose vitamin C. Laboratory studies suggest that high levels of vitamin C may kill cancer cells. See the Laboratory/Animal/Preclinical Studies section of the health professional version of High-Dose Vitamin C for information on laboratory and animal studies done using high-dose vitamin C.
Studies of IV vitamin C combined with other drugs
Role Of Vitamins And Nutrients To Prevent Cancer
An ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure. Benjamin Franklin
As mentioned, diet plays a key role in cancer prevention. Eating a well-balanced diet and getting regular exercise can effectively eliminate two risk factors. Being overweight and obesity.
With this in mind, lets discuss five vitamins and nutrients that can help prevent cancer:
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Switch From Antioxidant To Pro
This molecule is a powerful oxidant and is very toxic to cells especially cancer cells.
However, targeting cancer is not as simple as eating some extra oranges each day. Our bodies are extremely good at maintaining healthy levels of vitamin C when it is consumed in our diet. And when there is too much vitamin C in the system, it is simply cleared in the urine.
Levine shows that administering vitamin C by injection at high levels allows it to outfox our bodys control mechanisms.
Treatment with high levels of vitamin C caused enough oxidative damage to these cells to kill them by a cell death process known as apoptosis.
In addition to the pro-oxidant effect that vitamin C had on cells in this study, Dr. Cantley found that it inhibited glycolysis, which is a metabolic pathway that cells use to convert glucose into energy.
Clinical Vitc Monotherapy Studies
Clinical monotherapy studies administering high-dose VitC in patients with various types of advanced malignancies report this therapy to be safe, showing no significant toxicity at doses of up to 3âg/kg . These studies additionally demonstrated that at the given doses, ascorbate plasma levels of over 10âmM could be sustained for several hours, and observed maximum achievable blood concentrations of up to 49âmM . Grade 3 or higher adverse events possibly related to IVC treatment were reported in only 1â2 cases per study , the most common being hypokalemia , hypernatremia , hypertension and anemia . Riordan et al. additionally reported one case of kidney stones in a metastatic CRC patient with a history of renal calculi, suggesting IVC may be contraindicated for patients with renal dysfunction. Nielsen et al. reported one case of pulmonary embolism and pneumonia each, both of which can also be attributed to the underlying disease, since cancer is known to increase the risk of thromboembolic events. Hoffer at al . reported no grade 3 or higher toxicities.
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Is High Dose Vitamin C Iv Therapy Safe
High dose IV vitamin C is safe and well tolerated and has minimal side effects. It can be used along with most chemotherapeutic agents and radiation therapy, when monitored by a doctor who is experienced with integrative oncology treatments and understands interactions with conventional oncology therapies.
It is always important that all providers on a patientâs care team are informed of all treatments that they are receiving, both oral and IV, so that the patient can be effectively monitored during treatment.
Does Vitamin C Can Fight Cancer
Recently, a news report submitted by a Chinese website Sina technology and this article is completely based on their research and findings, we didnt add anything from our side According to them, the vitamin C can be used as a potential small molecule for the treatment of kidney cancer .
Vitamin C: Tablets
This is to start with the innate superior conditions of Vitamin C . Vc is an essential nutrient element in our daily life. Fresh dates, kiwi, grapefruit, green pepper, tomato, strawberry, cucumber, citrus, etc. are all rich in Vc. It can enhance the bodys immune function, anti-oxidation, and also has a cosmetic effect.
Vitamin C chemical formula
In 1970, Nobel Prize winner and biochemist Pauling issued a document saying that Vc can be used to fight cancer. After that, many people stood up and suspected that Vcs talents were different. It was once at the forefront of the turmoil and controversy continued. However, research on the relationship between Vc and tumor has never stopped.
The existing Vc anti-tumor research is based on the direct killing of cancer cells, which is essentially indistinguishable from radiotherapy and chemotherapy and subsequent tumor-targeted therapy.
Low doses of vitamin C can fight kidney cancer!
Vitamin C inhibits tumors
Anti-cancer tips for vitamin C: Apparent and transcriptional reprogramming
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What Are The Benefits Of Regular Vitamin C Intake
According to experts, vitamin C is one of the safest and most effective nutrients. When taken regularly, it can help prevent immune deficiencies, cardiovascular disease, prenatal health problems, eye diseases, and even wrinkles.
When vitamin C is taken orally for immune support at doses of 1000-3000 milligrams per day, it has antioxidant activity that protects cells from free radical damage and has antibacterial properties.
It also can prevent and help treat respiratory and systemic infections. The body is self-limiting with how much vitamin C it can absorb and utilize, and vitamin C concentration is regulated by intestinal absorption, tissue accumulation, and kidney reabsorption and excretion. This means excess vitamin C is excreted and flushed out of the body. Because of this, it is impossible to reach high blood or plasma levels of vitamin C.
Effect Of Pharmacologic Vitamin C In Cancer Cells
Since the basic knowledge regarding vitamin C pharmacokinetics was established, several studies analyzing the effect of pharmacologic ascorbate in cancer cells have been reported. Initially, in vitro studies in a number of human and mice cancer cell lines showed that ascorbic acid at concentrations around 20 mM selectively kill cancer cells, without effect in normal cell lines. In addition, the authors proposed that the cancer cell death inducing mechanism was dependent on hydrogen peroxide formation with ascorbate radical as an intermediate . The same research group later confirmed in rats that ascorbic acid at pharmacologic levels, achieved by IV or parenteral administration, induced ascorbate radical and H2O2 formation in the extracellular medium .
Vitamin C toxicity could also be associated with its oxidation byproducts. Lu et al. reported that DHA, which is transporter by GLUTs and no SVCTs enhance the efficacy of oxaliplatin through redox modulation in a gastric cancer model . The question whether AA or DHA is the most cytotoxic vitamin C species in cancer was addressed recently in breast cancer derived cell lines. AA showed higher toxicity in TNBC cells than DHA, increasing H2O2 in the extracellular medium and in intracellular compartments .
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Global Molecular Profiling Studies On High
To gain further insights in VitCâs anti-cancer properties on the molecular level, system-wide approaches that capture the complex interplay of various cellular signalling pathways are warranted. Specifically, transcriptomic and especially proteomic studies have the power to capture phenotypic manifestations of genetic alterations. To date, global RNA and protein expression studies on high-dose VitC action are confined to a few cell line studies in specific cancer types. Here, we summarize these studies and their most important findings, considering both studies specifically looking at the global effects of VitC treatment on its own , as well as the effects of combining VitC with other therapies .
Cancer types studied using global molecular profiling techniques. Annotated are VitC dose group , type of profiling method used and treatment type
Vitamin C Makes The Immune System Strong
The immune system helps the body to tell the difference between normal cells and other cells … such as bacteria or malignant cells.
It acts as a police force, patrolling the body and checking all cells.
This is why people with weak immune systems are prone to certain cancers.
Vitamin C helps the body produce immunoglobulins or antibodies . And more vitamin C means more antibody production.
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Historical Background Of High
Ascorbate is one of the early unorthodox therapies for cancer, based on two hypotheses but without supporting data. Nearly 50 years ago, McCormick postulated that ascorbate protects against cancer by increasing collagen synthesis . In 1972, Cameron and Rotman hypothesized that ascorbate could have anticancer action by inhibiting hyaluronidase and thereby preventing cancer spread . These hypotheses were subsequently popularized by Cameron and Pauling . Cameron and Campbell initially published case reports of 50 patients, some of whom seemed to have benefited from high-dose ascorbate treatment . Although the rationale was not clear, intravenous as well as oral ascorbate was used in most patients.
Cameron and Pauling then published the results of 100 patients with terminal cancer, in whom conventional therapy was no longer considered useful, and who were treated with 10 g ascorbate intravenously for 10 days followed by 10 g orally indefinitely. The ascorbate-treated patients were compared to 1,000 retrospective controls who had similar disease, but did not receive ascorbate or any other definitive anticancer therapy. The patients who received ascorbate survived 300 days longer than the controls .