Vitamin B2 / Riboflavin
Like thiamine, riboflavin exerts its impacts in a multitude of different ways. Principally it functions as a coenzyme, being required for a wealth of different enzymatic processes in the body. A deficiency in vitamin B2 has been shown to impact the body’s ability to absorb and use iron in the body, meaning that low levels can result in cases of anaemia, with all the issues this brings with it such as fatigue, dizziness and muscle cramps.
Alongside this, vitamin B2 has been observed to operate in tandem with other B vitamins – namely vitamin B6 and B7 – and a deficiency can concurrently cause issues with the metabolism of these nutrients too. Children that are given a diet deficient in riboflavin have been observed to suffer from stunted growth, heart defects and deformities.
How Much Vitamin B2 Do I Need?
According to the European Food Safety Authority, adults are advised to consume 1.4mg of riboflavin per day.
Foods Rich in Vitamin B2
As with vitamin B1, a diet that is rich in natural foods like meat, dairy and vegetables will normally ensure you’re getting enough riboflavin in your diet. Lamb, milk, yoghurt, mushrooms, spinach, almonds, eggs and salmon are all great sources of vitamin B2.
Absorptionabsorptionabsorption Involves The Uptake Of Nutrient Molecules And Their Transfer From The Lumen Of The Gi Tract Across The Enterocytes And Into The Interstitial Space Where They Can Be Taken Up In The Venous Or Lymphatic Circulationdigestion And Absorption Transport And Storage
- Absorbed in the distal small intestineSmall intestineThe small intestine is the longest part of the GI tract, extending from the pyloric orifice of the stomach to the ileocecal junction. The small intestine is the major organ responsible for chemical digestion and absorption of nutrients. It is divided into 3 segments: the duodenum, the jejunum, and the ileum. Small Intestine: Anatomy via an active transporter
- Blood levels are regulated by renal excretion of excess vitamin C in the urine.
- Some storage in the adrenal glandsAdrenal GlandsThe adrenal glands are a pair of retroperitoneal endocrine glands located above the kidneys. The outer parenchyma is called the adrenal cortex and has 3 distinct zones, each with its own secretory products. Beneath the cortex lies the adrenal medulla, which secretes catecholamines involved in the fight-or-flight response. Adrenal Glands: Anatomy, brainBrainThe part of central nervous system that is contained within the skull . Arising from the neural tube, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including prosencephalon mesencephalon and rhombencephalon . The developed brain consists of cerebrum cerebellum and other structures in the brain stem.Nervous System: Anatomy, Structure, and Classification, and eyes
History Of Promotional Marketing
Once discovered, vitamins were actively promoted in articles and advertisements in McCall’s, Good Housekeeping, and other media outlets. Marketers enthusiastically promoted cod-liver oil, a source of vitamin D, as “bottled sunshine”, and bananas as a “natural vitality food”. They promoted foods such as yeast cakes, a source of B vitamins, on the basis of scientifically determined nutritional value, rather than taste or appearance. In 1942, when flour enrichment with nicotinic acid began, a headline in the popular press said “Tobacco in Your Bread.” In response, the Council on Foods and Nutrition of the American Medical Association approved of the Food and Nutrition Board‘s new names niacin and niacin amide for use primarily by non-scientists. It was thought appropriate to choose a name to dissociate nicotinic acid from nicotine, to avoid the perception that vitamins or niacin-rich food contains nicotine, or that cigarettes contain vitamins. The resulting name niacin was derived from nicotinic acid + vitamin. Researchers also focused on the need to ensure adequate nutrition, especially to compensate for what was lost in the manufacture of processed foods.
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Is Vitamin E A Fat Soluble
Before knowing its answer let some know about Vitamin E. The chemical name of vitamin E is tocopherol. it is a fat soluble vitamins.
And it function is it play an important role in production of Vitamin A and ascorbic acid. it is necessary for normal reproduction and protection of the liver.
And source of vitamin E is vegetable oil, milk, tomato, dark green leafy vegetables, eggs, kidney, whole grain, cereals, nuts and liver and deficiency of Vitamin E causes loss of sexual power of reproduction.
Again ask such type of question is vitamin E a fat soluble, obviously their answer is Vitamin E is a fat soluble vitamin.
Vitamin B12 Relationship With Folate And Vitamin B6
Figure 9.19 B Vitamins Coenzyme Roles
Vitamin B12 and folate play key roles in converting homocysteine to amino acid methionine. As mentioned in Figure 9.19 Vitamin B6 Functional Coenzyme Role, high levels of homocysteine in the blood increases the risk for heart disease. Low levels of vitamin B12, folate or vitamin B6 will increase homocysteine levels therefore increasing the risk of heart disease.
Figure 9.20 The Relationship Between Folate and Vitamin B12
When there is a deficiency in vitamin B12 , inactive folate is unable to be converted to active folate and used in the body for the synthesis of DNA. Folic Acid however is available to be used as active folate in the body without vitamin B12 .Therefore, if there is a deficiency in vitamin B12 macrocytic anemia may occur. With the fortification of foods incorporated into peoples diets, the risk of an individual developing macrocytic anemia is decreased.
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Fat Soluble Vs Water Soluble Vitamins: Whats The Difference
Quick Health Scoop
- The 13 essential vitamins our body needs are classified into two main groups: water and fat-soluble vitamins
- The fat-soluble vitamins list includes Vitamins A, D, E, and K
- Examples of water-soluble vitamins include the B Vitamin family and Vitamin C
- When comparing fat-soluble vs water-soluble, each vitamin serves unique functions, making it important to eat a balanced diet to get all the fat and water-soluble vitamins you need every day
If youve been trying to eat better, you know that the key to a healthy lifestyle lies in a nutritious, balanced diet filled with fruits, vegetables, whole grains, dairy, healthy fats , and lean protein, including Omega-3 fatty acids. The variety of foods you eat is important because different foods provide different vitamins, minerals, and other nutrients.
Vitamins are classified into two main groups: water-soluble and fat-soluble vitamins. As a quick refresher, there are 13 essential vitamins that our bodies need for normal cell function, growth, development and overall optimal health. The known vitamins include the fat-soluble vitamins: A, D, E, and K, and the water-soluble vitamins: C and the B vitamins: thiamin , riboflavin , niacin , pantothenic acid , pyridoxine , biotin , folate/folic acid , and cobalamin .1
Lets dig deeper to learn more about fat-soluble vitamins vs water-soluble vitamins.
Vitamins Hang Out In Water And Fat
There are two types of vitamins: fat soluble and water soluble.
When you eat foods that contain fat-soluble vitamins, the vitamins are stored in the fat tissues in your body and in your liver. They wait around in your body fat until your body needs them.
Fat-soluble vitamins are happy to stay stored in your body for a long time. Then, when its time for them to be used, special carriers in your body take them to where theyre needed. Vitamins A, D, E, and K are all fat-soluble vitamins.
Water-soluble vitamins are different. These vitamins dissolve in water. When you eat foods that have water-soluble vitamins, the vitamins are not stored in your body. Instead, they travel through your bloodstream. Whatever your body doesnt use comes out when you urinate .
So water-soluble vitamins need to be replaced often because they dont stick around! This crowd of vitamins includes vitamin C and the big group of B vitamins B1 , B2 , niacin, B6 , folic acid, B12 , biotin, and pantothenic acid.
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A Closer Look At Trace Minerals
A thimble could easily contain the distillation of all the trace minerals normally found in your body. Yet their contributions are just as essential as those of major minerals such as calcium and phosphorus, which each account for more than a pound of your body weight.
Trace minerals carry out a diverse set of tasks. Here are a few examples:
- Iron is best known for ferrying oxygen throughout the body.
- Fluoride strengthens bones and wards off tooth decay.
- Zinc helps blood clot, is essential for taste and smell, and bolsters the immune response.
- Copper helps form several enzymes, one of which assists with iron metabolism and the creation of hemoglobin, which carries oxygen in the blood.
The other trace minerals perform equally vital jobs, such as helping to block damage to body cells and forming parts of key enzymes or enhancing their activity.
What Are The Functions Of Water
Every water-soluble vitamins functions differently and can be found in different foods. Many of them are used for the overall function of metabolism within the body, while others are used for supporting major bodily functions such as creating new cells or aiding in the absorption of other nutrients.
Vitamin C or ascorbic acid aids in energy metabolism as well as boosting the immune system. It also helps with the bodys absorption of iron. It is only found in vegetables and fruits, most notably citrus fruits. It can also be found in a variety of vegetables, mostly those that come from the cabbage family. Once upon a time sailors and voyagers would suffer from scurvy when they were on the ocean for vast stretches of time. This is because they didnt get enough vitamin C.
Thiamine is crucial to nerve function and for energy metabolism. It is found in all foods that have a nutritional value to them and it is usually included in a moderate amount. Those foods include whole-grain cereals and breads, nuts, seeds, pork and legumes.
Riboflavin is also used for energy metabolism as well as for the overall health of skin and eyes. It can be found in whole-grain breads and cereals, milk products and green vegetables. It can also affect the metabolism of other vitamins such as folate, iron, niacin, and vitamin B6.
So what does it do? This essential nutrient affects your:
It is also an essential vitamin for:
- chronic fatigue
What About Multivitamins
A diet that includes plenty of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, good protein packages, and healthful fats should provide most of the nutrients needed for good health. But not everyone manages to eat a healthful diet. Multivitamins can play an important role when nutritional requirements are not met through diet alone. Learn more about vitamin supplementation.
Vitamin B12 / Cobalamin
Like the term vitamin E, the word cobalamin actually refers to a group of compounds we know together under this umbrella term. Vitamin B12 plays an important role in the body’s production of energy and the maintenance of the nervous system. B12 is also essential for the proper development and function of red blood cells, nerve cells and neurotransmitters.
As vitamin B12 is only found in animal-derived foods, vitamin B12 deficiencies are particularly likely in vegetarians and vegans who have chosen to omit these food items from their diet. Indeed, one study in Germany found that 28% of vegans were deficient in this important vitamin. Clinical signs of a cobalamin deficiency in adults include anaemia and neurological problems, while children may also suffer from growth problems or developmental difficulties.
To learn more about vitamin B12 please consult our full guide at:
How Much Vitamin B12 Do I Need?
According to the European Food Safety Authority, adults are advised to consume 2.5mcg of cobalamin per day.
Foods Rich in Vitamin B12
Great sources of vitamin B12 tend to be restricted to meat and dairy, with eggs, milk, cheese and fish all being great dietary sources.
Recommended Reading: What Is The Best Source Of B Vitamins
Side Effects And Toxicity
Thiamine is considered safe. There are no reports of adverse effects after the intake of high amounts of thiamine from food or supplements.
This is partly because excess thiamine is quickly excreted from the body in urine.
As a result, the tolerable upper intake level for thiamine has not been established. However, this does not rule out possible symptoms of toxicity at very high intakes.
Vitamin B12 Transport And Elimination
Think of your blood as a major watery highway that links all the organs in your body. Since vitamin B12 dissolves in water, it can easily travel in your bloodstream to wherever it is needed. Vitamin B12 acts as a co-factor, or partner, to two enzymes that have key roles, including the production of energy from fats and proteins, as well as DNA synthesis. Since DNA, your genetic material, occurs in every cell, any organ can need vitamin B12 during the normal course of metabolism. As with all water-soluble vitamins, your body eliminates excess B12 through the urine.
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Making A Splash With Water
Making sure that your body has adequate levels of water-soluble vitamins is an essential part of promoting overall health and wellness. But making sure that youre getting these vitamins and absorbing them correctly is just as important.
Thats why you should consider sources of these vitamins which will provide hydration naturally, such as orange juice for vitamin C or leafy greens and dairy for B vitamins.11 Its also a no-brainer to take your water-soluble supplements with a glass of cool water.
After all, its the fluids from these sources that the vitamins will need to pass effectively from the intestines into the bloodstream so you can reap the benefits for enhanced health!
Keep this in mind when considering your health regimen goals, and youll be well on your way to a healthier future!
Always serving our customers,
Your friends at Swanson
*These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. These products are not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease.
1. The Importance of Vitamins to Your Body. Healthy Eating. Read source
2. Essential Nutrient. Science Direct. Read source
3. Water Soluble Vitamins. Very Well Health. Read source
4. Water Soluble Vitamins. National Institues of Health. Read source
5. Biochemistry, Water Soluble Vitamins. National Library of Medicine. Read source
6. Health Benefits of B Complex Vitamins. HealthLine. Read source
7. The Benefits of Vitamin C. WebMD. Read source
Vitamin B6 / Pyridoxine
Vitamin B6, also known as pyridoxine, is involved in the production of serotonin and norepinephrine, which help to transmit signals in the brain. It benefits a range of physical and psychological conditions, including nerve function, protein metabolism, and the production of antibodies and healthy haemoglobin. It also helps to regulate hormonal balance and is a central part of the storage and breakdown of glycogen in the muscle cells and liver.
Interestingly, a study of 85,557 different women also found that the consumption of vitamin B6 was inversely associated with kidney stones, with the experts concluding higher amounts of vitamin B6 may protect against the incidence of kidney stone formation.
As with other B complex vitamins, the symptoms of vitamin B6 deficiency can be far-ranging. For example, one study observed that women taking a combined oestrogen and progesterone oral contraceptive were more likely to suffer from such deficiencies. The study found that such deficiencies were also linked to cases of depression, and that study participants supplemented with additional pyridoxine often made a full recovery.
This is another water-soluble vitamin where toxicities are possible, but are also highly unlikely, with one study finding that toxicities occur when vitamin B6 intake is roughly 1,000 times the recommended therapeutic intake something nearly impossible to achieve through diet alone.
How Much Vitamin B6 Do I Need?
Foods Rich in Vitamin B6
Read Also: What Does Vitamin C Do For The Human Body
What Are Water Soluble Vitamins And Where To Find Them
We all know that vitamins play a vital role in developing a humans health. They are essential for vision, growth, metabolism, and the immune system. Most of the essential vitamins are naturally present in fruits and vegetables however, they are also present in pills and capsules.
Vitamins are of 6 types: Vitamin A, B, C, D, E, and K. These vitamins are characterized into water-soluble vitamins and fat-soluble vitamins based on solubility.
As the name suggests, fat-soluble vitamins are soluble in fat globules through the circulatory system and stored in the body tissue. In contrast, water-soluble vitamins are soluble in water and get expelled through urination.
In this article, we will discuss Water-soluble vitamins and where to find them naturally.
Dietary Reference Intakes For Vitamin C
The RDAs and ULs for different age groups for vitamin C are listed in Table 9.11 Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin C. They are considered adequate to prevent scurvy. Vitamin Cs effectiveness as a free radical scavenger motivated the Institute of Medicine to increase the RDA for smokers by 35 milligrams, as tobacco smoke is an environmental and behavioral contributor to free radicals in the body.
Table 9.11 Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin C
|*denotes Adequate Intake|
Source: Dietary Supplement Fact Sheet: Vitamin C. National Institutes of Health, Office of Dietary Supplements. . Updated June 24, 2011. Accessed October 5, 2017.
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If You Have A Vitamin Deficiency Should You Take Vitamin Supplements
In one word No. You shouldnt except cases of extreme deficiency, why? because the field of vitamin supplements have become a no mans land, a grey area, where the laws and regulations are dangerously lax in my opinion.
In my experience Ive seen brands which sold vitamin B6 supplements with a six, 6 times larger dose than the upper intake level. When it is known that at toxic doses B6 can produce nerve damage.
Another disadvantage of synthetic supplements is that they sometimes offer vitamins in a configuration that is poorly or non absorbed by the human body but is much cheaper to develop than the bio-compatible form. Always the best and most reliable form of vitamin intake is through a good and varied diet.
If you have deficiencies, first you should see if there are nutritional gaps in your diet or have a professional diagnose if you have a disease that could impair your capacity to absorb vitamins.