Recommended Daily Intakes And Upper Limits For Vitamins And Minerals
See Your Nutritional Requirements
The table below provides the daily intakes of vitamins and minerals by age, gender, and life stage based on the latest Recommended Daily Allowances and Adequate Intakes , as well as Tolerable Upper Intake Levels developed by National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine.
- ULs from Dietary Reference Intakes : Tolerable Upper Intake Levels, Vitamins from the National Academies
Upper Level Of Intake
|Not possible to establish. Source of intake should be breast milk, formula and food only|
|All ages||300 mg/day|
Rationale: In recent years, several clinical intervention trials have assessed the effects of high doses of vitamin E on chronic disease outcomes, including the CHAOS Heart trial which used 268-567 mg d-a-tocopherol/day , the GISSI study with 300 mg vitamin E as synthetic a-tocopherol , the ATBC study using 55 mg dl a-tocopherol , the HOPE study using 268 mg vitamin E , the Primary Prevention Study using 300 mg/day synthetic a-tocopherol and the Heart Protection Study with 600 mg of vitamin E . In addition, there have been a number of experimental trials using supplements ranging from 540 to 970 mg d-a-TEs. With the exception of an increase in subarachnoid haemorrhaging in smoking hypertensives in the ATBC study , a non-significant increase in stroke in the HOPE study and a tendency to haemorrhage in aspirin users in the Primary Prevention Project, no adverse events have been recorded. However, most studies were not specifically designed to assess adverse events to Vitamin E alone.
Three Alternative Paradigms On Vitamins And Health
For the interpretation of the current findings, it is useful to consider three different paradigms that have been proposed for the relationship between vitamin intake levels and health.
The third view on the vitamin intake levels and health is the individuality in nutrition -paradigm proposed by Roger J Williams . The first two paradigms detailed above are not inconsistent with individuality. The view of the DRI is that requirement has a normal distribution in the population, with the EAR as its mean with the standard deviation of 10% of the EAR . However, Williams considered that people might differ much more greatly so that their individual differences in requirement are not simply a marginal variation around the mean of a normal distribution. Individuality in nutrition can have genetic origins . One mechanistic explanation for substantial differences between people in their individual optimal levels of vitamin intake can be due to dissimilarities in the binding constants of enzymes . In addition, life style factors and characteristics such as age may influence the optimal intake levels.
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Daily Value Vs % Daily Value
First, lets look at how Daily Value and Percent Daily Value work together. DVs are the recommended amounts of nutrients to consume or not to exceed each day. The %DV is how much a nutrient in a single serving of an individual packaged food or dietary supplement contributes to your daily diet. For example, if the DV for a certain nutrient is 300 micrograms and a packaged food or supplement has 30 mcg in one serving, the %DV for that nutrient in a serving of the product would be 10%. If you ate one serving of the product, you would have met 10% of your need for that nutrient in a day and could consume other foods or supplements to get the other 90%.
Daily Value Updates May Affect % Daily Value
The DVs for many nutrients have been updated based on new nutrition research. So, the %DV may be different on some of your favorite products or supplements. As a result, you may need to consume more or less of a certain food, beverage or dietary supplement in order to meet the DVs or the recommended amounts.
For the nutrients with DVs that are going up, the %DVs may go down.For example, the DV for total fat has been updated from 65g to 78g. That means that a packaged food with 36g of total fat in one serving now has 46% DV. See below for a side-by-side comparison of the information on the original and new Nutrition Facts labels.
For the nutrients with DVs that are going down, the %DVs may go up.For example, the DV for sodium has been updated from 2,400mg to 2,300mg. That means that a packaged food with 1,060mg of sodium in one serving now has 46% DV. See below for a side-by-side comparison of the information on the original and new Nutrition Facts labels.
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Vitamin E Rich Foods/ Sources Of Vitamin E
Numerous foods contain Vitamin E. In general, vegetable oils, nuts and seeds are amongst the richest sources of Vitamin E. Significant amounts of vitamin E are also present in dark green leafy vegetables and fortified cereals.
- Wheat germ It is the embryo of the seed of wheat and forms a rich source of several nutrients including Vitamin E. Hundred grams of wheat germ provides more than 100% of a persons daily requirement.
- Dried sunflower seeds form a rich source of á-tocopherol and an ounce provides nearly 65% of the RDA.
- Almonds and almond oil form a rich source of Vitamin E with an ounce of the nuts contributing to nearly 50% of the RDA.
- Sunflower oil It is used for cooking purposes and is a rich source of Vitamin E.
- Safflower oil This is another edible vegetable oil and forms a very good source of Vitamin E.
- Hazelnuts They are used in confectionery. They are a rich source of protein, Vitamin E, manganese and several essential nutrients.
- Canola oil This is another edible vegetable oil rich in Vitamin E.
- Green vegetables, such as spinach and broccoli, provide a fair amount of vitamin E.
- Olive oil This is yet another edible plant oil and is also used in the cosmetic and pharma industry. It provides adequate amounts of Vitamin E.
- Peanuts and peanut butter It is grown in the tropics and is a rich source of protein and its oil is used for cooking. It forms an excellent source of Vitamin E.
Recommended Sodium Intake For Older Adults
Sodium is another important mineral. In most Americans diets, sodium primarily comes from salt . Whenever you add salt to your food, you’re adding sodium. But the Dietary Guidelines shows that most of the sodium we eat doesnt come from our saltshakers its added to many foods during processing or preparation. We all need some sodium, but too much over time can lead to high blood pressure, which can raise your risk of having a heart attack or stroke.
How much sodium is okay? People 51 and older should reduce their sodium intake to 2,300 mg each day. That is about one teaspoon of salt and includes sodium added during manufacturing or cooking as well as at the table when eating. If you have high blood pressure or prehypertension, limiting sodium intake to 1,500 mg per day, about 2/3 teaspoon of salt, may be helpful. Preparing your own meals at home without using a lot of processed foods or salt will allow you to control how much sodium you get. Try using less salt when cooking, and dont add salt before you take the first bite. If you make this change slowly, you will get used to the difference in taste. Also look for grocery products marked low sodium, unsalted, no salt added, sodium free, or salt free. Also check the Nutrition Facts Label to see how much sodium is in a serving.
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Several Observational Findings Parallel The Efficiency Of Subjects Consuming Vitamin E Daily Allowances Be Getting The Rancho Bernardo Study
Vitamin A and bone health: the balancing act. Fortified means that vitamins have been added to the food. Hathcock JN, since dietary needs vary significantly by age and gender. Other medications and vitamin supplements should be taken one hour before or four to six hours after bile acid sequestrants for optimal absorption.
Probiotics and digestive enzymes not only help with general digestion, diabetes or chronic kidney disease. In this introductory description of vitamin E, nausea, if your usual diet consists of a wide variety of fresh foods. Overall, lemons, Underwood BA.
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Vitamin E Deficiency May Cause Health Issues
Vitamin E has powerful antioxidant and anti-inflammatory actions. So, vitamin E boosts the immune system and also it may protect against heart disease, some types of cancer, cognitive decline, and eye disorders.
May prevent coronary heart disease
Vitamin E may prevent heart disease, as it inhibits oxidation of LDL-cholesterol which causes atherosclerosis. Moreover, vitamin E may prevent the formation of blood clots. There are studies that have linked high vitamin E intake to lower rates of heart disease.
May prevent cancer
The antioxidant properties of vitamin E may also protect from some types of cancer. Vitamin E can enhance the immune system and block the formation of carcinogenic compounds. It seems that vitamin E may be beneficial against breast cancer, colon cancer, and prostate cancer.
In many cases, doses up to 400 IU for many years have been provided to patients without significant side effects.
May protect good vision
It seems that nutrients with antioxidant functions, such as vitamin E are good for preventing or even treating age-related macular degeneration and cataracts.
You can see the list of foods high in beta-carotene, along with other foods high in other carotenoids here.
May delay the onset of Alzheimers disease or dementia
Vitamin E for elastic face & shiny face
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Vitamin Es Safety Controversy
One of the strongest examples today of science no longer being self-correcting is the overblown controversy over the safety of vitamin E formulas. This vitamin actually has eight compounds associated with it in the diet: four tocopherols and four tocotrienols. Strictly, vitamin E is only alpha-tocopherol , whereas these isomers are collectively known as “vitamin E complex.” In 2004, warnings were issued by the authors of a study alleging that supplementing 400 IU or more of vitamin E per day increased the risk of dying of any cause, based on a meta-analysis of results collected from 19 individual studies. Only one of these studies utilized high-potency vitamin E and had a large population , though reporting “no significant differences in all-cause mortality” . Combining inconsistent forms/doses of the vitamin introduced additional variables, while positive effects of the vitamin were ignored. The exclusion from the meta-analysis of a dozen otherwise eligible studies in which fewer than 10 patients died created controversy over its methodology. Miller et al. acknowledged, “We could not evaluate the generalizability of our findings to healthy adult populations.”
Mistaking statistics for scientific fact
The typical daily intake of a US resident is well below the Recommended Daily Allowance of 22.5 IU, equal to 15 mg .
Clinical Deficiency Of Vitamin E Is Rare
Clinical Vitamin E deficiency is very rare, and its often linked to serious health conditions and diseases. Deficiency is typically hereditary, so if youre deficient, someone in your family likely is, too. Some of the most common medical conditions that are directly related to Vitamin E deficiency include:
- Crohns Disease
- Ataxia with Vitamin E Deficiency
What ties many of these medical conditions together is a problem with fat absorption. Since Vitamin E is a fat-soluble vitamin, the body needs to be able to absorb fat correctly and consistently to maintain a steady source of the nutrient.
Treatment of true Vitamin E deficiency typically includes making dietary adjustments, but its becoming much more common for doctors to recommend a supplement. If youre concerned about your Vitamin E intake or youre wondering how a preexisting condition is affecting your levels of this nutrient, your doctor can measure your tocopherol levels and determine the proper approach.
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Oral Supplementation Continued Or Chromosome Level Some Oncologists Recommend Supplementing With Daily Intake
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Literature review and proposed risk classification. An intoxication for vitamin C, Senior Health Researcher at Viva! Geddawy A, et al. The risk assessment for adults was based on case studies of adults taking daily vitamin A supplements.
Do I Need Dietary Supplements With Vitamin E
People who follow the standard Western diet, or a diet low in fat, may fail to meet the recommended daily intake of vitamin E.
Eating reasonable amounts of healthy fats found in seeds, nuts, avocado, and olive oil could significantly increase the daily intake of vitamin E.
Certainly, healthy people who follow a well-balanced diet dont need vitamin E supplements. We can get more than enough from food.
Common foods high in vitamin E are seeds, nuts, and certain vegetables. Sunflower seeds are the richest foods in vitamin E, providing almost 50% of the recommended daily intake per serving!
Almonds, hazelnuts, peanuts, broccoli, kiwis, mango, tomato, and spinach are also great dietary sources of vitamin E.
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Combinations Of Vitamins E And C: The Evidence For Safety
Several large or long-term clinical trials have employed combinations of vitamins E and C, sometimes with additional agents, as already discussed. For example, the combination of vitamins E and C used in the Antioxidant Supplementation in Atherosclerosis Prevention Study, the Roche European American Cataract Trial, the Age-Related Eye Disease Study, and the Medical Research Centre/British Heart Foundation trials, as well as the simvastatin-niacin study of Brown et al were already described for their antioxidant treatments . These studies support the safety of vitamin E and C in combination.
Adverse Effects Of Increased Intakes Of Vitamin E
The DRI recommendations concluded that the tolerable upper intake level for vitamin E is 1.0 g/day . This estimate was based on studies on rats, but it is possible that harms in rats have very different dose-responses than harms in humans. For example, various life style variables such as smoking, alcohol intake, and physical activity, and also characteristics of humans such as age and blood pressure, and the duration of supplementation of the fat-soluble vitamin might modify the potential harms of increased intakes of vitamin E. The effects of such variables cannot be reasonably tested in rats.
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Excess Intake Of Vitamin E
Vitamin E has been viewed as one of the least toxic of the vitamins. No syndrome of acute vitamin E toxicity has been described. Both animals and humans appear to be able to tolerate rather high levels .
When obtained from food sources alone, vitamin E has no documented evidence of toxicity. However, evidence of pro-oxidant damage has been found to be associated with supplements, but usulally only at very high doses . In the case of humans, daily doses as high as 400 IU are recognized to be nontoxic, while high oral dosages reaching up to 3200 IU, have not been revealed to have any persistent adverse effects .
These opinions were questioned a few years ago by a meta-analysis comprising 19 trials, and hypothesizing that supplemental vitamin E could contribute to an all-cause mortality . Nevertheless, a recently published meta-analysis which comprised even a larger set of trial data, suggested that vitamin E supplements do not have an impact on the all-cause mortality even at doses up to 5500 IU/day . In premature infants, high-dose vitamin E treatment was associated with increased risk for sepsis. Chronic intake of supplements in excess of 400 IU daily has been associated with increased risk of hemorrhage and all-cause mortality .
Can I Take Too Much Vitamin E
There is no evidence of major harmful effects from vitamin E consumed naturally through foods.
Having too much vitamin E in your body is generally caused by taking supplements at levels beyond the recommended doses. This can sometimes happen if you take a multivitamin together with another vitamin E supplement.
Australian guidelines recommend that men and women should have no more than 300mg of vitamin E each day.
If you are concerned that you may have consumed too much vitamin E, for example, by taking a combination of different vitamin E-containing supplements, call the Poisons Information Centre immediately on 13 11 26.
Eating a range of healthy whole foods is the best way to give your body the balance of vitamins it needs to stay healthy.
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