A Strong Combination To Support Bone Health
Under this generic name are hidden several forms of Vitamin K originating from different food sources: Vitamin K1, also called phylloquinone, is mainly found in green vegetables like spinach, broccoli and kale. Vitamin K2 is represented by a group of molecules called menoquinones, primarily of microbial origin. This is the reason why fermented foods like cheese and natto, a Japanese traditional dish made of fermented soybeans, contain higher amounts of Vitamin K2.
In recent years, it appeared that the different Vitamin K forms also had different effects on health: while both Vitamin K1 and Vitamin K2 are involved in proper blood coagulation, Vitamin K2 has been assigned additional functions in maintenance of bone and cardiovascular health, notably by stimulating calcium deposition in the bone tissue and by preventing vascular calcification.
Vitamin K has been involved in other far-reaching functions and its intake is currently being discussed as a preventive strategy in maintaining health while aging.
In order to support bone health it is usually recommended to take supplemental calcium after a certain age. This intervention is more effective if Vitamin K2 and Vitamin D3 are co-administered.
Doppelherz® Vitamin D3+K2 provides 100 g Vitamin K2 as well as 35 g Vitamin D3 . This combination is useful to stimulate bone mineralization while maintaining normal circulating calcium levels, thereby reducing the risk of vascular calcification.
/4when Is Vitamin D A Problem
High vitamin D in the body leads to calcification of blood vessels which can exacerbate heart health leading to heart ailments.
The main drawback of taking vitamin supplements without a doctor’s advice is that people do not know when to stop. This results in over accumulation of the vitamin inside the body which then functions in a reverse way.
Over deposition of vitamin D or vitamin D toxicity leads to hypercalcemia. Hypercalcemia is a condition characterized by excessively high levels of calcium in the blood.
Blood vessel calcification is one of the major underlying conditions of heart disease.
The daily recommended amount of vitamin D is 1020 micrograms.
We Recommend The Following Dosages Of Vitamin K:
45 mcg vitamin K2 per day:
- for people, who take anticoagulant medications
- minimum supply for healthy people under the age of 50, who do not take additional vitamin D3 as a dietary supplement.
100 mcg vitamin K2 per day:
- for healthy people under the age of 50, who do not take any additional vitamin D3
- for all people, who take up to 2500 IU vitamin D per day
200 mcg vitamin K2 per day:
- for people with a family history of cardiovascular disease or osteoporosis
- for people, who have first symptoms of cardiovascular disease or osteoporosis
- for all people, who take more than 2500 IU vitamin D per day
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Putting Safe D3 Dosing In Perspective
Up until recently, the highest dose of vitamin D3 we typically recommended at the Riordan Clinic was 50,000 IU as a convenient once a week dose. Our maximum daily dose was 5,000 IU. This is a very safe dose as is documented on the website of the Vitamin D Council. Children can safely take about 1000 IU for every 25 lbs. of body weight.
That information may not seem reassuring now that the reader knows that vitamin D3 is used to kill rats. But heres the data on the LD50 of vitamin D3the Lethal Dose to kill half of the animals tested: Rats42 mg/kg, Dogs88 mg/kg.
Because an accurate LD50 for cholecalciferol in humans has never been determined most researchers use the LD50 for dogs as an estimate for humans. Using a hypothetical human subject weighing 110 pounds: in order to reach the LD50 dose, that subject would need to consume over 3,500 of the 50,000 IU D3 caps in a 24 hour period in order to have a 50% chance of dying.
I think were all safe! Authors note: I actually had a patient who took too many capsules of various and sundry supplementsand developed a gelatin bezoar that obstructed his small intestine! Dont overdo capsules!
Of course, there are other toxicity and sensitivity issues that can arise in the human consumption of vitamin D3. Generally, these can be avoided by having your 25D level measured once a year and keeping it around 60 ng/dl for optimal health.
How To Get Enough Vitamin K In Your Diet
Some of the best plant sources of vitamin K include broccoli, kale, spinach, brussels sprouts, collards, and swiss chard.
Although you can meet your daily vitamin K needs from incorporating leafy green veggies into your meals, it can be challenging when busy life gets in the way.
If youre frequently on-the-go, or simply want a quick and easy alternative to chopping and cooking veggies, Naked Greens may be the perfect supplement to add into your wellness routine.
So, how much vitamin K is enough?
According to the National Institutes of Health Office of Dietary Supplements, adult males and females need 120mcg and 90mcg of vitamin K per day, respectively .
In just one serving of Naked Greens, you are getting 50mcg of vitamin K, which is about 50% of daily vitamin K needs for both men and women.
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Benefits Of Vitamin K2
Vitamin K is a fat-soluble vitamin that is known to be involved in blood clotting, and to have importance for bone health.
Vitamin K has a range of structures with K1 phylloquinone and K2 menaquinone being the first major difference.
Vitamin K1 is used by the liver to help with blood clotting. Vitamin K2 works outside of the liver and is more of the focus of this discussion.
Most people think of vitamin K2 as a bone supplement. K2 can be safe while taking blood thinners , but you must check your PT/INR measurements with your doctor routinely.
Like Vitamin D3, vitamin K2 also has whole-body benefits beyond bone health. To see these benefits, youre going to generally need more dosage up to as much as 320mcg/day.
Vitamin K2 activates certain proteins that control calcium homeostasis in the body. This includes laying calcium into bone, and keeping calcium out of soft tissues like the arteries & kidneys.
For a more complete discussion, see a number of articles Ive written on Vitamin K2 benefits.
Measuring Vitamin K2 Levels in the Body
Admittedly, there is not a great direct measurement of vitamin K2 in the body.
Vitamin K is carried around by lipoproteins in the blood and the actual amount of K2 measured in the blood does not necessarily reflect your vitamin K2 storage.
Since its difficult to measure K2 directly, you use a substitute marker that can indirectly reflect your status.
I like using the marker of active vitamin D3 measured as 1,25 OH Vitamin D .
Effects Of Vitamin D And K On Interleukin
- 1Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Canisius-Wilhelmina Hospital, Nijmegen, Netherlands
- 2Department of Internal Medicine, Canisius-Wilhelmina Hospital, Nijmegen, Netherlands
- 3Department of Clinical Chemistry, Canisius-Wilhelmina Hospital, Nijmegen, Netherlands
- 4Department of Internal Medicine, Radboud University Medical Centre, Nijmegen, Netherlands
- 5Department of Biochemistry, Cardiovascular Research Institute Maastricht, University of Maastricht, Maastricht, Netherlands
Background: Pathology during COVID-19 infection arises partly from an excessive inflammatory response with a key role for interleukin -6. Both vitamin D and K have been proposed as potential modulators of this process.
Methods: We assessed vitamin D and K status by measuring circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D D) and desphospho-uncarboxylated Matrix Gla-Protein , respectively in 135 hospitalized COVID-19 patients in relation to inflammatory response, elastic fiber degradation and clinical outcomes.
Dp-ucMGP associates with IL-6 as a central component of the destructive inflammatory processes in COVID-19. An intervention trial may provide insight whether vitamin K administration, either or not in combination with vitamin D, improves clinical outcome of COVID-19.
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Vitamin K Is Dangerous
The interaction between anticoagulant drugs and vitamin K has been misunderstood. The doctors tell us to stop taking vitamin K so that it doesnt interfere with their drugs. But actually, it is the drugs that are vitamin K antagonists. Vitamin K is what belongs in the body and the drugs interfere with all of the activity of vitamin K, not just its coagulation activity. So, the use of vitamin K antagonist drugs causes higher calcification of the arteries, by interfering with the activation of MGP protein. This was first seen in chronic kidney disease patients, because they are at such high risk.
To make drug therapy safer, coumadin-based drugs should be replaced whenever possible with anticoagulants that do not interfere with vitamin K activity. Heparin is a good example of an alternative choice. Of course, this is a decision for you to make with your doctor, as we are not giving medical advice here. Coumarin is bad for your bones and leads to calcification of your arteries, which is itself a risk factor for heart disease.
If coumadin must be used instead of a safer drug, then regular supplemental vitamin K actually makes anticoagulation therapy safer. The doctor just needs to get the dosage correct for your regular intake of vitamin K, including supplements.
What To Look For In Supplements
Most research suggests that vitamin D3 supplements are more potent, better absorbed, and more bioavailable than D2 supplements . New vegan vitamin D3 supplements, derived from lichen, are an excellent alternative for anyone who avoids animal products. As for vitamin K:
Youll find vitamin D and vitamin K supplements in a variety of forms. The basics:
- Vitamin D3 , the natural type of vitamin D produced by your body in the presence of sunlight, is the most common form found in supplements. But because its made from animal sources, like lanolin from lambs wool, its not appropriate for vegans.
- Vitamin D2 , the form synthesized by plants, isnt naturally produced by humans. D2 supplements are derived from plant sources, usually irradiated fungus.
- Vitamin K1 is abundant in the diet, so unless you eat few leafy greens, you probably get enough.
- Vitamin K2 is harder to get through dietary sources. Menaquinone is actually a family of compounds, including MK-4 and MK-7, that differ in their biological activity. The MK-7 form is thought to be the most bioavailable, although some products contain a full spectrum of vitamin K2 chains for a wider range of benefits. Youll also see MK-7 as MenaQ7, a patented form that has enhanced bioavailability.
Here are a few supplements we like:
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Whats The Ratio Of Vitamin D To Vitamin K Intake Is There A Ratio
How can you know that you are getting enough of both vitamins D and K? Here is a quick summary of what this video discusses on the topic, along with additional information and details about vitamins D and K.
Vitamins D and K are common in several ways:
- we received plenty in evolutionary times vitamin D from sun, vitamin K from fermented foods and from bacteria on foods that produce vitamin K , plus lots of leafy green veggies
- both are fat soluble, should be taken with a fatty meal
- both play many roles in the body
Vitamin D can affect every tissue in the body in fact, 25% of all our genes are affected by vitamin D, from heart health to immunity and mental health, etcevery system of the body is affected by vitamin D
Vitamin K is necessary for bone health, keeping calcium in bone and helps prevent calcium collection in the arteries
How much vitamin D do you need? Enough to maintain a blood level of between 45-65 or 85 ng/ml . The GrassrootsHealth panel of scientists recommends a level between 40-60 ng/ml .
- As a general rule of thumb from Dr. Brown, for every 1000 IU of additional vitamin D taken, you could possibly raise your level by 10 ng/ml however, the dose response for vitamin D is a curve, and everyone responds differently to intake
- Must test to know your level and see how you respond to a change in dose
- Even smaller amounts of MK7 were found to be helpful
- all nutrients work together in the body
How Can You Use This Information For Your Health
Having and maintaining healthy vitamin D and other nutrient levels can help improve your health now and for your future. Measuring is the only way to make sure you are getting enough!
STEP 1 Order your at-home blood spot test kit to measure vitamin D and other nutrients of concern to you, such as omega-3s, magnesium, essential and toxic elements include hsCRP as a marker of inflammation or HbA1c for blood sugar health
STEP 2 Answer the online questionnaire as part of the GrassrootsHealth study
STEP 3 Using our educational materials and tools , assess your results to determine if you are in your desired target range or if actions should be taken to get there
STEP 4 After 3-6 months of implementing your changes, re-test to see if you have achieved your target level
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What Does The Department Of Health And Social Care Advise
You should be able to get all the vitamin K you need by eating a varied and balanced diet.
If you take vitamin K supplements, do not take too much as this might be harmful.
Taking 1mg or less of vitamin K supplements a day is unlikely to cause any harm.
Page last reviewed: 03 August 2020 Next review due: 03 August 2023
What Are Vitamin K Complex + Vit D3 Tablets For
- Vitamin D contributes to normal absorption and utilisation of calcium and phosphorous in the body
- Vitamin D contributes to the maintenance of normal immune function
- Vitamin D has a role in the process of cell division
- Vitamin K contributes to normal blood clotting
- Vitamin K and Vitamin D contributes to the maintenance of normal bones
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/4what Is The Solution
Many research studies have recommended that vitamin D supplement should be taken along with vitamin K.
While vitamin D ensures calcium presence in blood, vitamin K ensures the presence of calcium in bones thus reducing its deposition in blood vessels.
Many health experts have linked low levels of vitamin K to higher risk of cardiovascular disease.
Vitamin K is another fat-soluble vitamin that exists in two forms of vitamin K: vitamin K1 and vitamin K2 .
Vitamin K helps in carboxylation. When circulating concentrations of vitamin K are insufficient, a greater proportion of matrix Gla protein and osteocalcin remain uncarboxylated, which is associated with unfavorable outcomes such as cardiovascular disease, lower BMD, and osteoporosis, says a 2017 study.
The current recommendation for vitamin K1 intake is 70 g/day.
Are You Taking Enough Vitamin K2 For Optimal Benefit
How can you tell if your K2 is low?
If you take 2000-5000IU or more of Vitamin D, I believe that you should take Vitamin K2 alongside it, preferably the K2-7 form which has a long half-life and better utilization for the full range of K2 benefits.
Foremost, I generally recommend taking 320-500mcg per day of vitamin K2 in the form menaquinone K2-7 or ADK Complete to support everyday wellness.
The scenarios below address circumstances when you should take more, or get away with taking less of both vitamins.
Scenarios #1-2 focus on D3 need.
Scenarios #3-5 focus on increasing K2 need .
**Scenario #3 is the ideal scenario that lets you know if you might decrease your D3 and/or K2 intake .
Scenario #6 are examples when you might decrease D3 intake and/or strongly emphasize K2 intake. It also may mean seeking professional guidance to rule out red flags.
If I am going to be taking a supplement on an on-going basis, I want to know why its important to invest the time and money in the first place. Secondly, I want to know if Im getting enough.
Active 1,25 OH Vitamin D as an Indirect Marker of K2
Since active 1,25 OH vitamin D increases calcium in the blood, a HIGH level of the 1,25 OH vitamin D marker is a general sign that the body is still looking for more calcium or calcium is not finding its way to where it needs to be.
Both circumstances are K2-dependent for proper balance.
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Vitamin D Without Vitamin K May Increase The Risk For Heart Disease
High amounts of vitamin D can cause calcium to accumulate in blood vessels. With adequate vitamin K, calcium is shuttled to bones and teeth, therefore not accumulating in our vessels.
In other words, vitamin K helps prevent potential negative effects of overloading with vitamin D.
Its always a good idea to eat a lot of vegetables especially the leafy green ones such as kale, spinach, bok choy, broccoli, and collards, for example.
However, if you are someone who supplements with vitamin D, its even more pertinent that you eat your vegetables to ensure you are consuming adequate vitamin K.
What Are Good Sources Of Vitamin D3
Sunlight is good for us, but we must be careful not to get too much. Thats why the best way to maintain optimal vitamin D3 is through daily supplementation.
You can also find vitamin D3 in the highest quantities from animal sources good choices are seafood such as salmon, swordfish, white fish, and tuna. Other healthy options for vitamin D3 include hard boiled eggs and white meats.
For vegans, the foods with the highest vitamin D content are mushrooms, particularly portobello mushrooms.
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Measurement Of Vitamin D And K
Study personnel collected baseline blood samples in an 812 h fasted state. Samples were stored at 80 °C until analysis in 2018. Plasma vitamin D concentrations were assessed by 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 concentrations using isotope dilution tandem mass spectrometry. Samples were extracted and analyzed by solid-phase extraction/liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry using a Symbiosis online solid-phase extraction system . The detection limit for 25D was 1.2 nmol/L, and intra-assay and inter-assay coefficients of variation were 6.7 and 7.2%, respectively.
To determine vitamin K status, plasma dp-ucMGP was measured at Coagulation Profile, Maastricht, The Netherlands, with a dual-antibody enzyme-linked immunoassay . In this assay, the capture antibody is directed against a non-phosphorylated matrix Gla protein epitope comprising amino acids 3-15 and the detection antibody against an uncarboxylated matrix Gla protein epitope that includes amino acids 35-49 . The intra- and inter-assay coefficients of variation were 5.6% and 9.9%, respectively.