Rat Bait Poisoning In Small Animals
May 2, 2019 | Pets
As the mouse/ rat time of year approaches, many of you will be starting to think about putting rat poison down to control vermin.
There are a few considerations when doing this if you have pets. Obviously the most ideal thing to do is not have rat poison on the property at all. This may not be practical but it is the safest way to ensure that your pet doesnt get poisoned.
Vitamin K For Dogs Who Ate Rat Poison
The antidote to anticoagulant rodenticide is vitamin K1, a prescription drug. This can be given via injection or by mouth to increase the vitamin k1 levels in the body and prevent bleeding. Depending upon the timing since ingestion and signs, hospitalized care may be needed. Fluids may be administered intravenously.
Rodenticide Poisoning: What To Do After Exposure
Camille DeClementi, VMD, Diplomate ABT & ABVT
While anticoagulant rodenticide poisoning is dangerous to the patient and frightening for the owner, there are many positives when managing exposure to this pest control chemical.
- Since clinical signs do not develop for 3 to 5 days, the clinician often has adequate time to initiate treatment before signs develop.
- The prothrombin time test can be used to decide if treatment is needed and how long to continue treatment.
- The most important factor with regard to a positive outcome is that there is a true antidote, vitamin K1.
The clinician must keep in mind that it is very important to verify the active ingredient in the rodenticide product since there are multiple types of rodenticides and the color or shape of the bait is not coded to a specific type of rodenticide. Additionally, many animal owners may use the term d-CON to refer to any rodenticide, regardless of the brand name or type.
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What Are Anticoagulant Rodenticides
Anticoagulant rodenticides are poisons used to kill mice, rats, and other rodents by preventing blood clotting. They are commonly found in hard bait blocks, soft baits , and pellets, but may also be in, powder, grain/meal, and liquid formulations. There are several different active ingredients that may be used in anticoagulant rodenticides including chlorophacinone, brodifacoum, bromadiolone, difenacoum, difethialone, diphacinone and warfarin. The active ingredient and bait formulation depends on the product’s intended place of use and federal regulations.
What Is Rat Poisoning In Dogs
The ingredients in rodenticides, or rat poison, are extremely dangerous for dogs, and accidental ingestion is one of the most common forms of pet poisoning.
Rat poisons come in a variety of colorssuch as green, blue, tan, pink, and redand formulations, including pellets, bait blocks, powders, pastes, cereal, and soft baits.
Each of the four most common active ingredients in rat poisons have different mechanisms for poisoning and treatment for toxicity. Unfortunately, the active ingredient cannot be identified based on the appearance of the product or bait.
If your dog eats rat poison, it is important that you bring any remaining bait or packaging to the vet with you to aid in identification of the active ingredient.
The four most common active ingredients are:
If your dog eats rat poison , take them immediately to a local veterinary hospital for evaluation and treatment.
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Which Vitamin K Is Best
Vitamin K likely plays an important role in blood clotting and promoting good heart and bone health. Some research suggests that K2 may be superior to K1 in some of these functions, but further research is needed to confirm this. For optimal health, focus on increasing food sources of both vitamin K1 and K2.
Rat Poisoning In Dogs
The Spruce / J. R. Bee
Rat poisoning is a serious problem for dogs because rodenticide has an enticing flavor, designed to attract rodents. You may already know that rat poison is dangerous for dogs, but not everyone understands that ingesting even a small amount can bedeadly. Unfortunately, it is relatively common dogs for dogs to sniff out and eat rat poison if it is accessible. Once ingested, the poison can cause a range of symptoms, from vomiting to organ failure, and without treatment, a dog is likely to die. So, it’s crucial to prevent your pet from coming into contact with this toxic substance.
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What To Do When A Dog Eats A Rat Bait
Stay calm there is an antidote. Dogs dont die of rat bait exposure if they see a vet before symptoms appear, preferably within 24 hours of ingestion.
Call your vet for advice. If the rat poison was eaten less than two hours ago, you will be told to come straight down. Inducing vomiting should remove most of the poison. This includes secondary poisoning when a dog eats a poisoned rat.
If the exposure was more than two hours ago, inducing vomiting may still be a good idea, especially if your dog has had a recent meal to slow down absorption. However, there will almost certainly be poison in the system.
Your vet will either:
Warning: deaths have occurred using different Vitamin K so please consult your vet
For both options, three days after the end of the course, another clotting test is recommended.
How to decide? The decision is based on risk and cost.
What To Do If A Dog Eats Rat Or Mouse Poison
Now dive deeper.
In a survey of our clinic over 15 years, the second most common poisoning in dogs in Adelaide is caused by rodenticides.
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Is Vitamin K Prescription Only
The most common form of vitamin K is over-the-counter and is called water soluble chlorophyll. Vitamin K is available in tablet, capsule and liquid forms. Prescription forms of vitamin K are available as injectables and given in cases of extreme need.
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Vitamin K1 For Dogs With Rodenticide Poisoning
Rodenticides are chemicals produced to kill rodents. Its most commonly used to get rid of rats. However, in some cases dogs can also get their paws on it. If your dog by some chance ate a bigger amount of rodenticides, he may show symptoms of poisoning. This could possibly lead to a serious medical condition and even be lethal. However, there are ways to help. Vitamin K1 for dogs with rodenticide poisoning can often be the antidote. But there are some things to consider.
Rodenticide poisoning in dogs
Worryingly, many modern rodenticides have a nice flavour in order to attract animals. In some cases they could even look like a yummy snack. Thats why these types of poisoning arent rare in dogs.
There are several different types of rat poison and they all act differently depending on the poisonous ingredient they contain.
The most common types of rat poison are anticoagulant rodenticides which prevent the blood from clotting. This then leads to internalbleeding and death.
Other varieties include substances that cause kidney failure or brain swelling .
However, if you do decide to use a rodenticide, we highly encourage you to choose anticoagulants over others types. There is an antidote available for this kind of rodenticide poisoning. That could possibly save the life of your kids or animals. Common anticoagulant rodenticides are: brodifacoum, dopaquinone, warfarin, bromadiolone, and others.
Symptoms of poisoning
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Can Bromadiolone Affect Birds Fish Or Other Wildlife
Rodent baits are designed to be attractive to animals. Bromadiolone can be highly toxic to most mammals and birds. Wildlife may eat these baitsdirectly or they may eat a poisoned animal. Because it can takethem several days to die, animals that consume a lethal dose maycontinue to eat the bait before they die. They also may be moresusceptible to capture by predators. Wild mammals, birds and otherwildlife that eat poisoned rodents may receive a lethal dose. Accumulationof bromadiolone in the tissues of owls, buzzards, and otherraptors in the wild has been well documented.
To fish, bromadiolone is moderately to very highly toxic. It is moderate to high in toxicity to other aquatic life. However, registered bromadioloneproducts may not legally be applied to water. Therefore, it is unlikely to come in contact with other aquatic life. Research with bromadiolone on snakes and earthworms hasdemonstrated no toxic effects.
Where Can I Get More Information
For more detailed information about bromadiolone please visit the list of referenced resources or call the National Pesticide Information Center, Monday – Friday, between 8:00am – 12:00pm Pacific Time at 1-800-858-7378 or visit us on the web at. NPIC provides objective, science-based answers to questions about pesticides.
Please cite as: Wick, K. Bond, C. Buhl, K. Stone, D. 2013. Bromadiolone General Fact Sheet National Pesticide Information Center, Oregon State University Extension Services. http://npic.orst.edu/factsheets/bromadgen.html.
NPIC fact sheets are designed to answer questions that are commonlyasked by the general public about pesticides that are regulated by theU.S. Environmental Protection Agency . This document isintended to be educational in nature and helpful to consumers formaking decisions about pesticide use.
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How Does Bromadiolone Work
In mammals, bromadiolone works by preventing the body from recycling vitamin K which is needed to clot blood.Once animals run out of vitamin K they can bleed to death. It can take several days for the bodyâs stores of vitamin Kto be exhausted. Therefore, exposed animals may take several days to eventually die.
Symptoms Of Rat Poisoning
If you notice your dog exhibiting signs of rat poison ingestion, you may want to consider giving him a shot of vitamin K. This vitamin can help your dog clot, and can also be a safe antidote. If you do decide to give your dog a shot, remember that it will take three to seven days to see signs. In some cases, your dog may not even show signs for four days after ingesting rat poison.
If you think your dog has accidentally eaten rat poison, you should immediately take him to a veterinarian. These treatments vary depending on the type of rat poison your dog has eaten. Some poisons cause symptoms right away while others may take time to manifest. Its best to call your vet as soon as you notice any symptoms. Your veterinarian will probably perform blood tests and ask about what type of rodenticide your dog ate. Hell also want to know when the poison was consumed.
After your dogs symptoms begin, hell probably be in need of hospitalization. You may want to get your dog a shot of Vitamin K to treat the condition and avoid any additional medical bills. If your dog is vomiting or has a bloody stool, you should take him to a vet for a check-up. Treatment may take several days or a week, depending on the type of rat poison your dog ate. If the symptoms are severe, you may want to take him to the vet immediately. Your dog may even need to stay in the hospital. Cholecalciferol can cause dangerous levels of calcium in the blood. Your dog may suffer cardiac arrest and kidney failure.
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How To Prevent Rat Poisoning
The best way to prevent rodenticide toxicity is to avoid keeping rat poison on your property. However, your dog may still be able to find rat poison elsewhere. Unfortunately, dogs seem to have a way of finding rat poison on their own.
To prevent your dog from eating rat poison placed out by neighbors or businesses near your home, be sure to supervise your dog at all times when not on your property. Keep your dog indoors or in a securely fenced-in yard when you are not home. Never allow your dog to roam free.
If you absolutely must use rat poison on your property, never place it in an area where your dog can access it. Always keep the packaging just in case your dog manages to find the poison. Before using rat poison, carefully consider the risk. A safer choice is to contact a professional and ask about pet-safe options.
Bear in mind that your dog may find a way to consume rat poison or another toxin without your knowledge. Be sure to contact your vet any time your dog shows signs of illness.
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Symptoms Of Rat Poisoning In Dogs
Clinical signs will vary depending on the active ingredient in the rat poison and the amount ingested. Unfortunately, symptoms often take 1-7 days to show after ingestion of a toxic dose.
Many rodenticides contain dyes that may stand out in your dogs stool. Any time you see foreign material in your pets stool, contact your veterinarian immediately.
Clinical signs of anticoagulant rodenticides are based on signs of internal bleeding and may include:
Less common signs can include bloody diarrhea, nose bleeds, bruising, bloody urine, swollen joints, bleeding from gums, vaginal bleeding , pharyngeal swelling, and even seizures
Clinical signs of cholecalciferol rodenticides are related to the hardening of soft tissues, with the kidneys being most susceptible, and may include:
Increased thirst and increased urination
Clinical signs of bromethalin rodenticides are related to the effects on the brain, and can include:
Lack of coordination/stumbling
Clinical signs of zinc and aluminum phosphides will be related to the toxic phosphine gas that is produced. The gas itself is corrosive and can damage multiple organs. Clinical signs with this active ingredient can occur within minutes, and in severe cases death can occur in as little as 5 hours after exposure. Clinical signs may include:
Stomach bloating/abdominal pain
The Dangers Of Rat Poison To Dogs And Cats
Dr. Justine Lee explains the dangers of active ingredients in rat and mouse poisons. For more from Dr. Lee, find her on !
As the weather gets colder, mice and rats start seeking shelter in warm locations in other words, your house! Unfortunately, the start of autumn means the start of mouse and rat poisoning, putting your dog or cat at risk.In todays blog, well talk about the 4 different types of active ingredients found in these mouse and rat poisons. These poisons all work in different ways, so pay heed! While the most common type of mouse poison often affects your dogs ability to clot properly, new EPA mandates by the government are reducing the availability of this specific type of poison . Unfortunately, this means that newer, different types of poisons are cropping up. Not even all veterinarians are aware of these newer active ingredients! Depending on what type of mouse and rat poison was ingested, clinical signs can vary. When in doubt, please dont use these poisons around your house if you have pets. Im never an advocate of using these types of poisons, as they pose a threat to wildlife, pets, and birds of prey . Id rather you use the more human snap trap much safer to you and your pet!
- Swelling or bumps on the skin
- Bleeding from the gums
- Difficulty breathing
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