Normal Vitamin D Levels
According to the , the following are the minimum amounts of vitamin D a person needs per day:
|10 micrograms or 400 international units|
|170 years||15 mcg or 600 IU|
|71+ years||20 mcg or 800 IU|
People who are pregnant or breastfeeding also need 15 mcg or 600 IU of vitamin D per day.
Doctors use blood tests to determine if someone has adequate levels of vitamin D. They measure vitamin D using one of two measurements: nanomoles per liter or nanograms per milliliter .
The following table provides for low, normal, and high vitamin D levels for the average adult in nmol/ml and ng/ml.
|30 nmol/l or 12 ng/ml or below|
|Adequate||50 nmol/l or 20 ng/ml or above|
|High||125 nmol/l or 50 ng/ml or above|
A person can talk to their doctor to get a better understanding of what their blood test results mean.
Vitamin D also contributes to the health of muscles, nerves, the brain, and the immune system.
The symptoms of a vitamin D deficiency can be subtle , but the classic symptoms are bone aches and muscle weakness.
Are Vitamin D Or D3 The Same
When we refer to vitamin D, we are talking about Vitamin D2. Vitamin D2 and D3 are both widely used vitamin D supplements but are not the same. Vitamin D2 is ergocalciferol and comes from plant-based sources. Vitamin D3 is cholecalciferol and comes from animal-based sources. Both supplements are processed in the body by the liver to 25-hydroxyvitamin D, though vitamin D3 is thought to provide higher levels of 25D. Some formulations of vitamin D2 are prescription only, while all formulations of vitamin D3 are over-the-counter.
What Does Your Diet Have To Do With Getting Enough Vitamin D
Vitamin D doesnt occur naturally in many foods. Thats why certain foods have added vitamin D. In fact, newer food nutrition labels show the amount of vitamin D contained in a particular food item.
It may be difficult, especially for vegans or people who are lactose-intolerant, to get enough vitamin D from their diets, which is why some people may choose to take supplements. It is always important to eat a variety of healthy foods from all food groups. The vitamin content of various foods is shown in the following table.
Vitamin D content of various foods
|Cheese, Swiss, 1 ounce||6|
It is important to check product labels, as the amount of added vitamin D varies when it is artificially added to products such as orange juice, yogurt and margarine.
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Definition Of Vitamin B
Alexis Gaskin, Marie Claire, 1 Oct. 2021
Also lost is the inner germ layer thats full of antioxidants, magnesium, potassium, vitamin B and healthy fats. Sandee Lamotte, CNN, 13 July 2021
This nutrient-dense veggie is an excellent source of potassium, vitamin B, vitamin C, folic acid, calcium, and manganese, a mineral involved in metabolism and blood sugar regulation. Meghan Overdeep, Southern Living, 22 June 2021
Kombucha contains antioxidants, vitamin B, and antimicrobial acids that promote detoxification by assisting the liver in eliminating unwanted compounds. Krystin Arneson, CNN Underscored, 27 Nov. 2020
Valledor notes that dry lips can even be a result of a vitamin B deficiency. Madge Maril, Harpers BAZAAR, 24 Nov. 2020
The Mayo Clinic says that a diet that consists of vitamin B might help reduce dandruff outbreaks. Patia Braithwaite, SELF, 2 Nov. 2020
These example sentences are selected automatically from various online news sources to reflect current usage of the word vitamin B.. Views expressed in the examples do not represent the opinion of Merriam-Webster or its editors.
What Are The Impacts Of Vitamin D Deficiency
Vitamin D deficiency is linked with calcium deficiency because vitamin D helps to absorb calcium. Babies who have low calcium levels are at risk of seizures. Some children with very low vitamin D will have a condition called rickets. This involves bone and muscle pain as a result poorly formed soft bones.
If you are an older adult with vitamin D deficiency, you are at more risk of fractured bones due to low calcium levels and a weakened immune system. In cases of long-term vitamin D deficiency, you may develop osteoporosis or osteomalacia .
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Whats The Difference Between Vitamin D2 And D3
There are two main forms of vitamin D vitamin D2 and vitamin D3 and the difference between them has to do with their chemical structure and the way theyre made. Vitamin D3 is the form of vitamin D that the body makes from sunshine hitting your skin. You can get it from animal-derived sources. Vitamin D2, on the other hand, is plant based.
Is Vitamin D Deficiency An Epidemic No Its Not
Thomas Carpenter, MD, Yale Medicine pediatric endocrinologist and director of the Yale School of Medicines Center for X-Linked Hypophosphatemia
Based on the United States Dietary Association and National Health and Nutrition Surveys , the bulk of the population is not vitamin D-deficient. The population we tend to see vitamin D deficiency inand its typically in wintertimeare breastfed infants. Breast milk doesn’t have much vitamin D in it. That’s what spurred a recommendation from the American Academy of Pediatrics that every breastfed infant be given vitamin D . But if infants aren’t given multivitamin drops, they need to be given 200 IU a day of vitamin D for the first two months of life and 400 units a day afterwards until theyre drinking formula or milk, which are each fortified with vitamin D.
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Recommendations For Supplementation In Vitamin D
Supplementation in vitamin D-deficient patients depends on your patient’s age and medical history. Use this table as a guide to help you advise your patients on recommendations for supplementation:
Recommendations for supplementation in Vitamin D-deficient patients
Obese Patients / Patients with malabsorbtion syndromes / Patiens taking certain medications
*After achieving 25D levels > 30 ng/mL.
Specific supplementation guidelines are not available for pregnant and lactating women. Both groups should be advised to supplement if tests show low levels of vitamin D.
Recommended Iu Vitamin Intake
Although you can convert IU measurements to units of weight, in most cases you don’t need to do that conversion, which in turn would force you to be aware of which form of the vitamin you’re consuming. Remember, the “IU” unit was created specifically to make standardized dosage effects easier.
So for fat-soluble vitamins, certain hormones and some enzymes, the recommended daily dosage and commercially available supplements are all usually labeled with IU. The fat-soluble vitamins you’ll typically see labeled with IU, and their recommended daily intake for adults, is:
Other vitamins, such as vitamin C, are measured in milligrams, or mg, because they don’t require the additional standardization imposed by the IU unit. Vitamins that are usually present or consumed in very small quantities, such as vitamin B12, are measured in micrograms.
Read more:A List of Fat-Soluble Vitamins
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Ok So Where Does Iu Come In
Now, you may have noticed that with certain vitamins, the label doesnt use MG, MCG or ‘ug’ to indicate the amount, but instead something known as IU. This acronym stands for International Unit. But unlike MG or MCG, it is not a physical unit of measurement, referring to a particular mass or volume that you might literally see or feel. Instead, IU measures something less obviously tangible: a particular products biological activity or potency.
This system was devised due to some vitamins coming in multiple forms, each of which has a different potency or level of biological activity. Vitamin D, for example, comes in two forms in supplements: D2 and D3 . It might not therefore make much sense to use a physical weight measurement, such as MG or MCG, for a vitamin D supplement, given that the same quantity of D2 and D3 would produce different biological effects. And vitamin D isnt the only vitamin that exists in multiple forms with different levels of potency the same applies to vitamin A, which you can get in the form of retinol or beta-carotene, and vitamin E, which is supplied in both d-alpha-tocopherol and dl-alpha-tocopherol forms in supplements.
The existence of the IU measurement therefore helps us to ensure that when were comparing vitamin supplements, were genuinely comparing like with like as far as their actual effect on the body is concerned.
What Does 5000 Iu Stand For
5,000 IU does not tell you the amount based on mass. In fact, the IU does not measure mass or volume.
Remember, each vitamin supplement has its own level of biological effectiveness. The IU measures the effectiveness rather than the weight or amount.
Lets think about an example. 5,000 mg of vitamin D3 is going to have a different effect on the body than 5,000 mg of beta-carotene. These measurements dont mean anything in terms of effectiveness, so we need to measure the effectiveness of each vitamin through a standardized measurement like the IU.
5,000 IU of Vitamin D3 is a standard daily amount of vitamin D3, especially for women who have a slightly low vitamin D level. On the other hand, 5,000 IUs of beta-carotene is too much of the vitamin. In fact, this much vitamin A can leave someone prone to fractures.
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Am I At Risk Of Vitamin D Deficiency
There are 2 main forms of vitamin D needed for healthy body functioning. Vitamin D2 is from plant sources. Vitamin D2 is found in fortified food and some supplements. Vitamin D3 is produced by sunlight on the skin. It is also found in some animal foods and supplements.
Most people are not able to get enough vitamin D from foods. But most people in Australian can get their vitamin D simply by going about their daily outdoor activities.
How much time you should spend in the sun will depend on many considerations, including your skin type, where you live, your lifestyle, the time of year and the time of day. It is important to wear a hat and sunscreen when the ultraviolet index is high.
See the sunshine map for the recommended sun exposure for your location in Australia.
If you are in any of the following groups, you are at a higher risk of vitamin D deficiency:
- older people or people living in care
- people who stay indoors or cannot walk
- people with gastrointestinal disease
- people taking certain medications
- people who cover their skin for religious or cultural reasons
- dark-skinned people
- pregnant people
- postmenopausal people
There are also seasonal changes that may affect your risk of vitamin D deficiency. For example, most people spend more time outdoors in warmer weather when there are more hours of UV light, and they spend more time indoors in winter.
Finally That Nrv Versus Rda Question
We thought wed throw in an explanation of this one, as theyre another two very relevant acronyms to any conversation about vitamin supplements and appropriate intake.
RDA stands for Recommended Daily Allowance, and is the term that many of us used to look for on labels, and are still most familiar with. It was effectively replaced with NRV or Nutrient Reference Value when a new European regulation came into effect in December 2014.
The actual values of RDA and NRV, though, are exactly the same where 100% RDA may have once appeared on a given label, youll now simply see 100% NRV instead.
There you have it armed with the above information, youll hopefully be much more confident in the future when running the rule over the labels of all kinds of vitamin supplements and health products. These are certainly details that are well worth knowing when you are seeking to make the right decisions for the health of you and your family
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Can I Take Vitamin D3 Everyday / How Much Should I Take
Yes, you can take daily vitamin D supplements. There are some dosages that are designed for once weekly or once monthly dosing, so it is important to go over this with your healthcare professional. Many Americans are vitamin D deficient, but should we all be taking the same amount? The answer is no. The appropriate dose for your supplementation will depend on your health status, your sun exposure, whether or not you are pregnant, and your age, just to name a few factors. Consult your physician or pharmacist for a recommendation.
What Happens If I Have Too Much Vitamin D
There is no negative effect of excess vitamin D from the sun. However, prolonged exposure to harmful UV radiation dramatically increases your risk of skin cancer. Using sunscreen will not lead to vitamin D deficiency.
Continually taking high doses of vitamin D supplements can cause vitamin D toxicity. A condition called hypercalcaemia is the most common condition that results from taking too much vitamin D. Signs of this condition include nausea, dehydration and constipation.
If you are concerned that you have taken too much of a vitamin D supplement, call the Poisons Information Centre immediately.
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Sample Size And Sample Determination
In the present study, the sample size was calculated using a previously described formula for parallel clinical trials n=2 /d2 . In this formula, n is number of participants in each group. For estimating sample size, we considered type one and type two errors of .05 and .20 respectively, and fasting plasma glucose levels as a key variable. Based on a previous study , standard deviation of plasma glucose levels was 8 mg/dL and the difference in mean was considered to be 5 mg/dL. Where =.95, =20%, study power=80%, d=5, and SD=8.
We reached the sample size of 21 subjects for each group. In addition, to consider probable dropouts, 30 patients were included in each group. At the end, a total of 180 patients with MetS were included in the present study. Participants were distributed into six groups as shown in Fig. .
Why Is A 25
Your doctor may request a 25-hydroxy vitamin D test for several different reasons. It can help them figure out whether too much or too little vitamin D is causing bone weakness or other abnormalities. It can also monitor people who are at risk for having a vitamin D deficiency.
Those who are at high risk of having low levels of vitamin D include:
- people who dont get much exposure to the sun
- older adults
- babies who are breastfed only
- people who have had gastric bypass surgery
- people who have a disease that affects the intestines and makes it difficult for the body to absorb nutrients, such as Crohns disease
Your doctor may also want you to do a 25-hydroxy vitamin D test if theyve already diagnosed you with a vitamin D deficiency and want to see if treatment is working.
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Which Form Of Vitamin D Is Better
Recent studies involving daily doses of vitamin D2 and vitamin D3 show that they are equally effective in boosting your vitamin D levels.
Thus, the type of vitamin D you get is less important than getting the right dose and making sure your levels are in the right range to avoid deficiency. Most experts recommend 600 to 800 IUs of vitamin D per day.
If you want to see what your vitamin D levels are like, take the Everlywell Vitamin D Testâan easy at-home option that lets you conveniently collect a sample at home and send it to a lab for accurate testing .
1. Vitamin D. NIH, Office of Dietary Supplements. URL. Accessed February 15, 2021.
2. Nair R, Maseeh A. Vitamin D: The “sunshine” vitamin. J Pharmacol Pharmacother. 2012 3:118-126.
3. Vitamin D2 vs. D3: Which Should I Take for Bone Health?. Cleveland Clinic. URL. Accessed February 15, 2021.
4. Jetty V, Glueck CJ, Wang P, et al. Safety of 50,000-100,000 Units of Vitamin D3/Week in Vitamin D-Deficient, Hypercholesterolemic Patients with Reversible Statin Intolerance. N Am J Med Sci. 2016 8:156-162.
5. On call: Vitamin D2 or D3?. Harvard Medical School. URL. Accessed February 15, 2021.
Conditions Treated By Vitamin D And D3
Vitamin D2 as a prescription is used to treat hypoparathyroidism , vitamin D resistant rickets, and hypophosphatemia . It is commonly used for vitamin D insufficiency in both its prescription and over-the-counter formulations. The FDA does not approve treatment claims for over-the-counter vitamin supplements, therefore, even though this use is very common, it is considered off-label.
All forms of vitamin D3 supplements are available over-the-counter, and therefore are not FDA approved to make treatment claims. However, vitamin D3 is commonly used off-label to treat hypoparathyroidism and vitamin D deficiency, as well as for osteoporosis prevention.
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