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What Is The Dri For Vitamin C For Moyra Doyle

Interim Analyses And Stopping Guidelines

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We performed one interim analysis when the accumulating data had accrued approximately half the estimated sample size according to OBrien-Fleming boundaries at a level =0.05 the significance level for the final analysis was =0.0459. A standardized test statistic was calculated for the incidence of pre-eclampsia and all adverse effects based on accrued data. The Data Safety and Monitoring Board recommended continuation of the study.

What Is The Dri For Vitamin C For Moyra Doyle

Asked by wiki @ 10/06/2021 in Social Studies viewed by 31 People

Cigarette smoking increases the need for vitamin C, and the requirement for vitamin C for smokers is 35 mg above the DRI. Although smoking is certainly not indicated during pregnancy, if Moyra Doyle were a smoker, what would her DRI for vitamin C be?

O a. 100 mg

Short answer: 85 plus 35

Explanation:

During pregnancy the DRI for vitamin C is 85 mg DRI. If Moyra is a smoker, which is not recommended during pregnancy she will require an additional 35 mg. This would mean that she would need 120 mg DRI to have a satisfactory intake of Vitamin C.

However, the real facts are these: women that cannot quit smoking are usually give 500 mg of Vitamin C. It was found that at least twelve percent of those that smoke while pregnant are not able to quit and must be supplemented in order to have a better chance of the fetus not being affected.

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Glycaemic Index Glycaemic Load And Fibre

Different sources of carbohydrates have variable digestion rates, thus their effects on blood glucose and insulin levels also vary. The glycaemic index quantifies glycaemic responses induced by carbohydrates from different foods . High GI foods, including rice, white bread and potatoes, cause a sharp rise in blood glucose levels which decline rapidly, whereas low GI foods such as fruits or dairy have slowly digestible carbohydrates which result in a lower postprandial glucose response . Glycaemic load takes into account both the quality and quantity of carbohydrates in food and is obtained by multiplying the GI by the carbohydrate content of a given food . Dietary fibre describes a variety of plant-based carbohydrates that are resistant to digestion by human gastrointestinal enzymes. These include soluble fibre , insoluble fibre or resistant starch . Diets high in fibre and with a low GI and GL can promote laxation, reduce blood cholesterol and modulate blood glucose and hence may be beneficial in pregnancy.

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Maternal Micronutrient Requirements During Lactation

Breast-feeding confers health benefits to the child, as well as the mother . Breast milk is the ideal source of nutrition for the infant and also contains a number of bioactive compounds important in immunity, such as antibodies, cytokines, antimicrobial agents, and oligosaccharides . The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends exclusive breast-feeding for the first six months of infancy, followed by continued breast-feeding as complementary foods are introduced, with continuation of breast-feeding until 12 months postpartum or longer as mutually desired by the mother and child . The World Health Organization recommends exclusive breast-feeding for the first six months of life and continued breast-feeding, with complementary feeding, up to two years or more postpartum . There are, however, a few exceptions when breast-feeding is contraindicated, including those listed on the CDC website.

Table 3. RDA for Maternal Micronutrients During Lactation

Micronutrient

Reviewed in August 2016 by:Berthold V. Koletzko, M.D., Ph.D.Professor for Paediatrics, Ludwig-Maximilians-University of MunichDr. von Hauner Childrens Hospital, Univ. of Munich Medical Center,Campus InnenstadtMunich, Germany

The 2016 update of this article was underwritten, in part, by a grant from Bayer Consumer Care AG, Basel, Switzerland.

DRIs for potassium and sodium updated 4/12/19 Copyright 2011-2021 Linus Pauling Institute

Micronutrient Requirements During Pregnancy

Pregnancy is associated with increased nutritional needs due to physiologic changes of the woman and the metabolic demands of the embryo/fetus. Proper maternal nutrition during pregnancy is thus imperative for the health of both the woman and the offspring. Maternal malnutrition during pregnancy has been associated with adverse outcomes, including increased risk of maternal and infant mortality, as well as low-birth-weight newborns a measure that accounts for preterm birth and intrauterine growth restriction of the fetus . Select nutrient deficiencies have also been linked to congenital anomalies and birth defects. In addition, gestational undernutrition has been implicated in increasing the offsprings susceptibility to chronic disease in adulthood, a phenomenon sometimes called Barkers hypothesis, the thrifty phenotype hypothesis, or the fetal origin of adult disease hypothesis . Maternal undernutrition often refers to malnutrition caused by insufficient caloric intake from macronutrients during pregnancy, but micronutrient deficiencies are also a form of undernutrition. Multiple micronutrient deficiencies commonly co-exist in pregnant women .

Table 1. RDA for Micronutrients During Pregnancy

Micronutrient
eConsidered an essential nutrient, although not strictly a micronutrient

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Vitamin B1 Vitamin B2 Vitamin B3 Vitamin B6 And Vitamin B12

B-complex vitamins including vitamins B1, B2 , B3 , B6 and B12 are water-soluble vitamins required for the production and release of energy in cells and for the metabolism of protein, fat and carbohydrates. These vitamins act as coenzymes in several intermediary metabolic pathways for energy generation and blood cell formation . Vitamin B12 functions alongside folate to convert homocysteine to methionine, a process which is essential for the methylation of DNA, RNA, proteins, neurotransmitters and phospholipids . Deficiency in these vitamins can therefore impact on cellular growth as well as on nerve tissue development due to its high-energy demand. Most prenatal supplements include B-complex vitamins, yet, with the exception of vitamin B12, the individual metabolic roles of B-vitamins are not well defined in pregnancy.

B-complex vitamins are obtained primarily from animal sources including meat, poultry, fish and dairy products and can also be found in fortified cereals, legumes and leafy green vegetables . The requirement for these vitamins is heightened in pregnancy due to increased energy and protein needs, particularly during the third trimester. However, adaptive responses during pregnancy reduce urinary excretion of some B-vitamins, including riboflavin, to help meet increasing demands . Vitamin B12 insufficiency is proposed to affect 25% of pregnancies worldwide, while global estimates of deficiencies in other B-complex vitamins are unavailable .

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Case Study #: Vitamin K And Coumadin Therapy Each Question Below Is Worth 1 Point Answer

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1. The answer is c.120 ug/day

The intake recommendations for vitamin K and other nutrients areprovided in the Dietary Reference Intakes developed by theFood and Nutrition Board at the Institute of Medicine of theNational Academies. DRI is the general term for a set of referencevalues used for planning and assessing nutrient intakes of healthypeople. These values vary by age and gender.

2. The answer is c. 90 ug/day

For females it is less than males

3. The answer is a. Recommended Dietary Allowance : Averagedaily level of intake sufficient to meet the nutrient requirementsof nearly all healthy individuals often used to plannutritionally adequate diets for individuals

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Limitations And Future Directions

Neonatal development is influenced by maternal nutritional status in both the preconception period and throughout pregnancy . Yet, clinical examinations and nutrient intakes are often not assessed in the preconception and periconceptional phases, when placentation and embryogenesis would likely benefit most . In fact, for many micronutrient studies, data collection is performed at a single timepoint during pregnancy. Such studies often fail to identify the critical windows of opportunity whereby measuring and treating certain deficiencies can promote the greatest benefit. Single timepoint measures also give rise to flawed assessments because micronutrient concentrations can change over the course of pregnancy due to plasma volume expansion and other adaptations of the pregnant state . Future studies aiming to relate maternal dietary intake to new-born health parameters should account for these physiological changes and should perform data collection in the preconception period, longitudinally across various timepoints during the pregnancy, and, if relevant, during lactation.

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