Deficiency Of Vitamin E
There exists a subtle difference in definitions describing levels of vitamin intake . Whereas vitamin deficiency is caused by diseases, metabolic disorders , or impaired absorption of the vitamin. Vitamin undersupply is characterized as an intake issue and they can result from insufficient dietary intake, which does not achieve reference values . Because of an abundance of tocopherols in the human diet, its deficiency is rare except in individuals with pancreatic insufficiency or other conditions causing substantial fat malabsorption, or protein-energy malnutrition and may be caused by rare genetic defects affecting vitamin E metabolism or transport .
Vitamin E can be mobilized from adipose tissue for a relatively long time , so that the symptoms of slightly vitamin E deficiency may manifest following many years, even decades .
Nevertheless, a severe vitamin E deficiency may reveal itself almost immediately in acute symptoms such as neuro- and myopathy, as vitamin E is essential for an optimal development and condition of the central nervous system . Insufficient vitamin E saturation can occur in intestinal resection, in severe liver disease and in cystic fibrosis . In the absence of vitamin E, the accumulation of radicals with lipoperoxidation in humans leads to various defects in membrane function, muscle metabolism and the nervous system . These reactions should be considered if vitamin E is not absorbed or cannot be used.
May Prevent Coronary Heart Disease
Whether vitamin E prevents coronary heart disease for the general population has yet to be determined. Much of the existing research is contradictory with findings suggesting vitamin E supplementation in high-risk patients is beneficial, while other research indicates that vitamin E does not improve cardiovascular risk factors at all.
According to a review published in the Journal of Lipid Research, administering vitamin E supplementation may be cardioprotective for those with high levels of oxidative stress, including people with type 2 diabetes and individuals undergoing hemodialysis.
Interestingly, a 2019 study determined quite the opposite, that supplementing with vitamin E had negative effects on coronary artery disease . Scientists found that higher vitamin E levels may actually increase the risk of CAD.
At this time more research is needed to determine the effects of vitamin E on cardiovascular risk factors. Talk with your cardiologist before taking vitamin E to improve heart health.
Finally, the American Heart Association does not promote the usage of vitamin E supplementation to prevent cardiovascular disease as it may be associated with an increase in total mortality, heart failure, and hemorrhagic stroke. They do however suggest eating foods rich in vitamin E and other antioxidant nutrients to promote heart health.
Possible Risks Associated With Taking Vitamin E Supplements
Are there any risks to taking vitamin E daily?
Answer:Research has shown possible risks to taking vitamin E. Because of those risks, and because vitamin E supplements have not been shown to offer significant health benefits, I do not recommend taking vitamin E supplements for disease prevention.
Vitamin E is found in vegetable, nut and seed oils. Foods that contain vitamin E include canola oil, olive oil, margarine, almonds and peanuts. A main function of vitamin E in the body is as an antioxidant.
Antioxidants neutralize unstable molecules called free radicals. Free radicals may contribute to aging and chronic diseases by damaging other molecules. Regarding cholesterol and heart disease, studies have shown that when low-density lipoprotein cholesterol is oxidized by free radicals, it is more likely to contribute to the buildup of fatty deposits in the arteries, which can lead to a heart attack or stroke.
Because it’s an antioxidant, researchers wanted to find out if taking a vitamin E supplement could improve heart health. In the early 1990s, laboratory research showed that, in test tubes, vitamin E prevented the oxidation of LDL cholesterol. Vitamin E also showed benefits on heart health in animals. When researchers conducted population studies in humans, they found that people who took the most vitamin E had the lowest risk of heart disease.
Donald Hensrud, M.D., Endocrinology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn.
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What Does The Department Of Health And Social Care Advise
You should be able to get the amount of vitamin E you need by eating a varied and balanced diet.
If you take vitamin E supplements, do not take too much as this could be harmful.
Taking 540mg or less a day of vitamin E supplements is unlikely to cause any harm.
Page last reviewed: 03 August 2020 Next review due: 03 August 2023
Excess Intake Of Vitamin E
Vitamin E has been viewed as one of the least toxic of the vitamins. No syndrome of acute vitamin E toxicity has been described. Both animals and humans appear to be able to tolerate rather high levels .
When obtained from food sources alone, vitamin E has no documented evidence of toxicity. However, evidence of pro-oxidant damage has been found to be associated with supplements, but usulally only at very high doses . In the case of humans, daily doses as high as 400 IU are recognized to be nontoxic, while high oral dosages reaching up to 3200 IU, have not been revealed to have any persistent adverse effects .
These opinions were questioned a few years ago by a meta-analysis comprising 19 trials, and hypothesizing that supplemental vitamin E could contribute to an all-cause mortality . Nevertheless, a recently published meta-analysis which comprised even a larger set of trial data, suggested that vitamin E supplements do not have an impact on the all-cause mortality even at doses up to 5500 IU/day . In premature infants, high-dose vitamin E treatment was associated with increased risk for sepsis. Chronic intake of supplements in excess of 400 IU daily has been associated with increased risk of hemorrhage and all-cause mortality .
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Can I Take Too Much Vitamin E
There is no evidence of major harmful effects from vitamin E consumed naturally through foods.
Having too much vitamin E in your body is generally caused by taking supplements at levels beyond the recommended doses. This can sometimes happen if you take a multivitamin together with another vitamin E supplement.
Australian guidelines recommend that men and women should have no more than 300mg of vitamin E each day.
If you are concerned that you may have consumed too much vitamin E, for example, by taking a combination of different vitamin E-containing supplements, call the Poisons Information Centre immediately on 13 11 26.
Eating a range of healthy whole foods is the best way to give your body the balance of vitamins it needs to stay healthy.
Why Are The Results Different
The Womens Health Study , PHS II, and SELECT are RCTs, also referred to as clinical trials or intervention studies. In RCTs, individuals are randomly assigned to either treatment or placebo, and the impact of the intervention on disease incidence is evaluated after several years.
The important issues that emerge from these RCTs are vitamin E dose , vitamin E form , and population studied. Synthetic vitamin E has half the bioactivity of naturally occurring vitamin E hence, the effective dose in PHS II and SELECT was only 100 and 200 IU/day, respectively, and 300 IU/day in WHS. Higher doses may be needed to effectively reduce oxidative stress. In one dose-response study, significant reductions in plasma F2-isoprostanes occurred only at daily doses of at least 1,600 IU of natural-source vitamin E. Notably, this dose is above the tolerable upper intake level of 1,500 IU/day set by the Food and Nutrition Board of the Institute of Medicine.
The fact that the vitamin E doses used in the RCTs appear insufficient to lower oxidative stress may explain the lack of benefit with respect to cancer risk. It remains unknown whether oxidative stress plays a causal role in prostate cancer. Furthermore, it remains unexplained why vitamin E supplementation in SELECT was associated with a 17% increased risk of prostate cancer, whereas vitamin E supplementation in PHS II and WHS was not associated with increased risk of any type of cancer in men and women, respectively.
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Vitamin E Deficiency May Cause Health Issues
Vitamin E has powerful antioxidant and anti-inflammatory actions. So, vitamin E boosts the immune system and also it may protect against heart disease, some types of cancer, cognitive decline, and eye disorders.
May prevent coronary heart disease
Vitamin E may prevent heart disease, as it inhibits oxidation of LDL-cholesterol which causes atherosclerosis. Moreover, vitamin E may prevent the formation of blood clots. There are studies that have linked high vitamin E intake to lower rates of heart disease.
May prevent cancer
The antioxidant properties of vitamin E may also protect from some types of cancer. Vitamin E can enhance the immune system and block the formation of carcinogenic compounds. It seems that vitamin E may be beneficial against breast cancer, colon cancer, and prostate cancer.
In many cases, doses up to 400 IU for many years have been provided to patients without significant side effects.
May protect good vision
It seems that nutrients with antioxidant functions, such as vitamin E are good for preventing or even treating age-related macular degeneration and cataracts.
You can see the list of foods high in beta-carotene, along with other foods high in other carotenoids here.
May delay the onset of Alzheimers disease or dementia
Vitamin E for elastic face & shiny face
Vitamin E May Improve Blood Vessel Health
Vitamin E plays a vital role in the production of red blood cells by protecting them from oxidative damage. Alongside vitamin K, it also helps expand blood vessels, which reduces the possibility of blood clots.
A 2007 paper published in Circulation found that in 213 patients who took 600 IU vitamin E daily, their risk of developing venous thromboembolism, a condition where a blood clot in the extremities travels to the lung, lowered by 21%.
While blood clotting is important because it slows bleeding after a cut or injury, it can be problematic when clots form in your blood vessels and then spread to the lungs or heart. This can lead to severe chest pain, coughing, and difficulty breathing.
A 2013 paper in the Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry assessed 15 healthy men and found that vitamin E protects against the development of impaired lining of blood vessels caused by hyperglycemia after eating. Vitamin E was effective in offsetting any spikes in blood pressure after eating, thus improving blood vessel health.
Another study conducted in 2013 assessed 30 smokers after they stopped smoking and began taking 500 mg of vitamin E daily. It found that vitamin E supplementation along with quitting nicotine, resulted in about a 19% reduction in cardiovascular disease risk. Those who took vitamin E supplementation saw reduced levels of inflammation and better vascular function compared to those who received a placebo.
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How Much Vitamin E Do You Need When Youre Pregnant
Although its a necessary nutrient for your own health and your babys growth, its important to stick to a healthy intake of vitamin E during your pregnancy that means not too much and not too little2.
Your recommended daily intake of vitamin E during pregnancy is 3mg, which should be easily achievable by eating a healthy, well-balanced diet1.
A New Starring Role For E
Is it time to give up on vitamin E? Not quite yet, other findings suggest. Despite the disappointing news, some heart specialists think it’s still worth taking — especially by people who already have cardiovascular disease. Douglas Morris, M.D., Director of the Heart Center at Emory University in Atlanta, admits that he would still take vitamin E — along with vitamin C, another potent antioxidant — if he were diagnosed with heart disease. After all, vitamin E at doses of 800 IUs or less a day has no known side effects. And some cardiologists are still recommending the vitamin to patients with heart disease.
Moreover, other evidence suggests that vitamin E may provide additional important payoffs.
Research has found that E helps keep the immune system strong as we age. For instance, when researchers at Tufts University in Boston tested vitamin E capsules against placebos in healthy volunteers 65 or older, they found that those who took 200 IUs per day showed a 65% increase in the activity of their immune cells in response to foreign substances. The vitamin E group also experienced a six-fold increase in antibodies to hepatitis-B vaccination — evidence that their immune systems were much stronger in creating defenses against the disease.
Peter Jaret is a freelance writer living in Petaluma, Calif. His work has appeared in Health, Hippocrates, Women?s Sports and Fitness, and numerous other publications. He is a contributing editor for WebMD.
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How To Choose The Best Vitamin E Supplement
Before choosing a vitamin E supplement, a person may wish to consider the following:
- Form: Supplements are available in a capsule, softgel, chewable, or liquid form, so a person can choose the option that best suits their needs.
- Third-party testing: As the Food and Drug Administration does not regulate supplements, a person may want to consider checking that the product is third-party tested to ensure safety.
- USP verification: The United States Pharmacopeial Convention offers verified status to products that pass its strict manufacturing guidelines, including the following:
- The product must contain the ingredients in its label details.
- The product must contain the declared potency and amounts.
- The product must not contain harmful levels of specified contaminants.
- The supplement will absorb into a persons body within a specified timeframe.
- The manufacturer must use safe, sanitary, and well-controlled practices in accordance with FDA and USP guidelines.
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Maximum Safe Intakes Of Vitamins E And C
The UL is defined by the FNB as the highest daily nutrient intake that is likely to pose no risk of adverse health effects to almost all persons in the general population. The UL method is an adaptation of a general method in quantitative toxicology. It is similar to but has important differences from the acceptable daily intake method that is widely used to set regulatory limits for food additives and pesticide residues in foods. Both the UL and the acceptable daily intake involve identification of an intake that is a no-adverse-effect level or a lowest-adverse-effect level , evaluation of uncertainty, and calculation of an intake that is expected to carry no significant risk of adverse effects, ie, the UL or acceptable daily intake. The UL and acceptable daily intake methods differ markedly in the way they address uncertainty. The UL method uses uncertainty factors that are fully derived from the specific database for each substance under consideration. For derivation of a UL from human data, the FNB has utilized UFs that range from 1 to 5, with values of 1.5 to 2 being most common. When deriving the UL from animal data, higher uncertainty factors are used to account for the uncertainties in extrapolation between species.
The NOAEL data are selected on the basis of considerations of evidence of causality, relevance, and the quality and completeness of the database. The UL is calculated as
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Vitamin E Benefits The Skin Hair Eyes And Heart
What if I told you there was a vitamin that plays the role of antioxidant, preventing free radical damage to specific fats in the body that are critical for your health and naturally slowing aging? Im talking about vitamin E, and believe it or not, vitamin E benefits dont end there. Other vitamin E benefits include its role as an important fat-soluble vitamin thats required for the proper function of many organs, enzymatic activities and neurological processes.
Benefits of consuming more vitamin E-rich foods can include treating and preventing diseases of the heart and blood vessels, such as chest pains, high blood pressure, and blocked or hardened arteries. It is found only in plant foods, including certain oils, nuts, grains, fruits and wheat germ. Its also available as a supplement.
So lets find out how you can get all these great vitamin E benefits, along with the best vitamin E foods, supplements and the signs of a vitamin E deficiency.
Vitamin C: The Evidence For Safety
The preponderance of scientific evidence, which has been thoroughly reviewed by several authors, shows consistently that vitamin C is safe at intakes of 2000 mg/d . Several hypothesized adverse effectsincluding the hypotheses of adverse effects of increased oxalate and kidney stone formation, increased uric acid concentrations, excess iron absorption, reduced vitamin B-12 concentrations, systemic conditioning , and prooxidant effectswere examined in detail and were found to have no substantive basis .
Although vitamin C supplementation may be less studied than vitamin E supplementation for the prevention for chronic disease, several clinical trials are relevant to its safety evaluation . For example, in the Roche European American Cataract Trial , the Age-Related Eye Disease Study , and the simvastatin-niacin study of Brown et al , patients who received the vitamin cocktails also ingested vitamin C at doses of 750, 500, and 1000 mg/d, respectively. A combination of 800 IU vitamin E/d and 1000 mg vitamin C/d has been reported to attenuate the beneficial effects of a combined simivastatin-niacin treatment when measured as angiographic endpoints, but it had no significant effects on the treatments clinical endpoints . The meaning of this observation with respect to the safety of vitamin E, vitamin C, or both in the presence or absence of simivastatin and niacin is not known.
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