Sunlight Skin Cancer Wrinkles And The Immune System
When DNA absorbs UV radiation this can cause cross linking of the pyrimidine bases, thymine and cytosine. Double-stranded RNA can also form uracil dimers . The two common UVB products are cyclo-butane pyrimidine dimers and 6,4-pryimidine-pyrimidones. These premutagenic lesions alter the structure of DNA and consequently inhibit DNA polymerases and arrest cell replication . These dimers are usually repaired by photoreactivation or nucleotide excision repair . The unrepaired dimers are mutagenic. It is believed that certain genes such as the p53 tumor suppressor gene if unrepaired can lead to unregulated hyper-proliferation of the epidermal cell causing an actinic keratosis. If both p53 genes are affected this can lead to non-melanoma squamous cell skin cancer .
Melanoma being the most deadly skin cancer is often found on the least sun-exposed areas. Risk factors for melanoma include number of sun burn experiences as a child and young adult, genetic predisposition, red hair color,increased numbers of moles on the body. Occupational sun exposure has been associated with a reduced risk for this deadly skin cancer .
A. Penetration of ultraviolet B , ultraviolet A , visible and infrared radiation in the human skin. B. In response to exposure to UVB and UVA radiation the stratum corneum thickens and melanocytes at the epidermal-dermal junction are stimulated to produce melanin. .
The Connection Between The Winter Months Vitamin D And Your Health
- Kelly Harrington, MS, RDN
I have mixed feelings about Falls time changeboth great and glum. Whats great? Having that one 25-hour day. Whats glum? Short days with too much darkness!! And with all this darkness, it leads me to wonder, is falling back bad for your health? Its quite possible, considering were down to about 9-11 hours of daylight per day, depending on where you live in the United States.
With minimal sunlight, peoples vitamin D levels are certainly lower during the winter months. Not only is the amount of time youre exposed to the sun much less, but if you are exposed, the suns rays are also weaker. During the winter months, the further away from the equator you are, the more of an angle the sun’s rays hit the atmosphere. This means less UV light is available for your body to produce vitamin D.
Vitamin D deficiency has been associated with poor immune function, poor cardiovascular health, depression, inflammatory bowel disease, osteoporosis and hormone imbalance .
Along with vitamin A and thyroid hormone, vitamin D regulates the DNA of some cells to favor maturation into specific cell types. This is important in orchestrating tissue development in the fetus and growing child.
As you can imagine, if darker days result in less vitamin D circulating through your body, your health will be affected.
Vitamin D and Seasonal Affective Disorder
Vitamin D Sources
- Expose your bare skin to sunlight.
- Take vitamin D supplements .
Fat-Soluble Vitamin D
Sunlight And Vitamin D: Theyre Not The Same Thing
ARTICLE SUMMARY Sulfate synthesis in the skin captures the suns energy. Adequate sunlight exposure to both the skin and the eyes is vital to our long-term health. Among other functions, sulfate supports blood vessel health, the bodys electrical supply and the delivery system for important molecules such as cholesterol, vitamin D, dopamine and melatonin. Evidence indicates that sunlight protects against cancer, heart disease, hypertension and bone fractures. The benefits of sunlight exposure are about much more than vitamin D. Many studies show that vitamin D supplementation cannot reproduce sunlights health benefits. Moreover, excessive vitamin D supplementation can aggravate systemic sulfate deficiency, which will drive calcium buildup in the arteries. Both sunscreen and glyphosate interfere with synthesis and production of melaninthe bodys natural mechanism of sun protection. Aluminum in sunscreen disrupts sulfate synthesis. These disruptions may explain why melanoma prevalence has steadily risen in tandem with the increased use of higher sun-protection-factor sunscreens over the past two decades.
I believe that the mechanism with which we safely exploit the suns energy is through the oxidation of sulfur to sulfate, with the help of cholesterol. This reaction takes place in the skincatalyzed by sunlightand it is vital to our long-term health.
THE ROLE OF SULFATE
SUNSCREEN USE AND MELANOMABOTH RISING
MORE PROBLEMS WITH SUNSCREEN
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How Much Is Too Much
Because high doses of some supplements can have risks, how do you know when its OK to take more than the RDA or DV?
One way is to look for the UL of a nutrient. With many vitamins and minerals, you can safely take a dose much higher than the RDA or DV without coming close to the UL.
For instance, the average person can take more than 50 times the RDA of vitamin B6 without reaching the upper limit. But some people develop symptoms of nerve pain with these higher levels of B6. So you should always be cautious. Here are some things to keep in mind:
Some supplements are riskier than others. With some vitamins and minerals, the upper limit is pretty close to the RDA. So its easy to get too much. For example, a man who takes just over three times the RDA of vitamin A would get more than the upper limit. High doses of vitamin A and other fat-soluble vitamins like E and K can build up in the body and become toxic. Other risky supplements include the minerals iron and selenium.
Supplementsare designed to be additions to your diet. Popping pills is not the answer to good health. Experts say you should eat a well-balanced diet and take supplements to fill in any nutritional gaps. Some people take a multivitamin with minerals for nutritional insurance.
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Find Out Why The Sunshine Vitamin Shows Promise In Managing Multiple Sclerosisand How Much Of It You Should Be Getting
by Health Writer
Even as unpredictable as can be, scientists are perpetually trying to calibrate the optimal approach for managing this chronic condition of the central nervous system, deploying everything from the latest to more natural aidslike sunshine and vitamin D.
Doctors know that sunlight is associated with good effects for people with MS, and that people who have low levels of vitamin D have a higher risk of developing MS, says Lauren B. Krupp, M.D., the director of the Multiple Sclerosis Comprehensive Care Center at NYU Langone in New York City. As researchers further explore the intriguing link, heres what it could mean for you if you’re one of the estimated 1 million Americans who live with MS.
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Should Everyone Get Their Vitamin D Levels Checked Generally No
Karl Insogna, MD, director of Yale Medicines Bone Center
Most people should be fine. Testing is important only for certain populations: for people who are institutionalized for patients with a gastrointestinal disorder or osteoporosis those who have had weight loss surgery those on anti-convulsant medications and children who are immobilized and not outside and active. If youre over 70, I recommend getting your levels checked at least one time.
People whose cultural or religious beliefs require them to be fully clothed, especially if theyre living in northern climates, and whose dietary habits include little or no dairy , may also be vitamin D-deficient and should be tested.
Vitamin D & Sunlight: Fact Or Fiction
The truth is that, yes indeed, sun exposure does cause the body to generate more Vitamin D. It may sound like science fiction in some ways, but its really just a hard fact.
Now its time to answer everyones favorite question: How on Earth does that work?
The molecule of vitamin D3 which is organically produced in the skin. This is also the most bioavailable form of Vitamin D for supplementation.
When human skin is exposed to sunlight, a molecule known as 7-Dehydrocholesterol, which is always present in the skin, absorbs these UV rays and converts them into a molecule known simply as previtamin D3.
From there, the previtamin D3 experiences isomerization a process in which one molecule transforms into another molecule with the same atoms, but a different arrangement of said atoms. In this case, it isomerizes into cholecalciferol, also known as Vitamin D3.
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Sunlight And Vitamin D: Autoimmunity Protection
There are a variety of association studies demonstrating that being born or living near the equator reduces risk of several autoimmune diseases.73,134–139 Being born and living for the first 10 y at a latitude of ~40° North compared with ~33° North increases a person’s risk of developing multiple sclerosis by 100% .134,140,141 Munger et al.142 made the observation that high circulating levels of 25D were associated with a lower risk of multiple sclerosis and that women who had an intake of vitamin D of 400 IU vitamin D per day reduced their risk of developing multiple sclerosis by more than 40%.143
Figure 62. Prevalence of multiple sclerosis by latitude in the United States according to data from Noonan et al.140 and Wallin et al.141 . The dashed line is a quadratic fit to the data from Noonan et al.,140 and the solid line is a fit to the data from Wallin et al.141 Reproduced with permission from.134
A plot of the incidence of type 1 diabetes vs. latitude demonstrated an impressive U-shaped curve. Children younger than 14 y during 19901994 in 51 regions worldwide demonstrated a 1015 fold increase in risk for developing type 1 diabetes if they were born in far Northern and Southern latitudes .144
Figure 64. Incidence rate of type 1 diabetes diagnosed at or before 14 y of age in Finland. Reproduced with permission from.271
The Substantia Nigra And Parkinsons Disease
Parkinsons disease is a relatively common progressive neurological disease manifested as a movement disorder, associated with tremors, stiffness and slowed movement. It is caused by a loss of neurons in the substantia nigra , a dark structure in the midbrain where dopamine is synthesized. The dark color is due to substantial production of neuromelanin, a close relative to the skin-tanning agent, melanin. Depigmentation of the substantia nigra due to loss of neuromelanin is a hallmark feature of Parkinsons disease.29
A study comparing 186 patients with Parkinsons disease with controls revealed that the PD patients had significantly lower bone density and significantly lower serum vitamin D levels compared to controls.30 Another study, based in China, compared 201 newly diagnosed patients with PD with 199 controls and also found that low serum vitamin D was linked to Parkinsons.31 They also used a questionnaire to determine whether the study participants took vitamin D supplements and how much sun exposure they obtained. The frequency of Parkinsons disease in the group in the highest quartile of sun exposure was only half of the rate for those in the lowest quartile. Interestingly, serum vitamin D levels were highly correlated with degree of sun exposure, but not with vitamin D supplementation.
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How Much Sun Is Too Much
Typically, vitamin D toxicity is caused by overdoing it on supplements and not by sun exposure. However, were talking about consistent doses of around 60,000 IU for several months. But that level of toxicity is difficult to achieve.
Just remember, before taking any drastic measures or changing routines or diets, always consult your doctor. The sun is generally a huge asset and plays a key role in the production and processing of key compounds in our body, but too much of anything is bad.
Expose Your Skin Around Midday
Midday, especially during summer, is the best time to get sunlight.
At noon, the sun is at its highest point, and its UVB rays are most intense. That means you need less time in the sun to make sufficient vitamin D (
Not only is getting vitamin D around midday more efficient, but it might also be safer than getting sun later in the day. One study found that afternoon sun exposure may increase the risk of dangerous skin cancers .
Midday is the best time to get vitamin D, as the sun is at its highest point and your body may manufacture it most efficiently around that time of day. This means you may need less time in the sunlight at midday.
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Is It Best To Get Your Vitamin D From The Sun Definitely Not
David J. Leffell, MD, Yale Medicine dermatologist and chief of Dermatologic Surgery
One of the biggest challenges weve faced in dermatology and in the world of skin cancer prevention has been a lot of misinformation about vitamin D metabolism.
There are claims that one needs to get a certain amount of sun exposure every day in order to produce enough vitamin D to be healthy. Its just not true. The majority of people can get their vitamin D from nutritional supplements and from vitamin D-fortified foods.
There are some people who have advocated for tanning to get vitamin D. But we know that UVB light causes skin cancer and that protecting yourself against it makes sense. As a doctor who treats patients who have melanomas, I want the general public to be advised that under no circumstances can use of a tanning bed or tanning in general be justified on the basis of vitamin D. Take a supplement instead.
Why Skin Colours Differ
Why do some people have dark skin while others have light-coloured skin? The answer lies in the skin’s need for protection against solar radiation and the body’s need for vitamin D.
The skin is our body’s wrapping, visible to everyone. Evolution has given us shades of skin colour from black to white, optimally adapted for us according to where we live on Earth. Where the sun is strongest, skin colour has become darkest, while weak solar radiation gives light skin colour.
Dark-skinned people need six times more sun than white-skinned people to get enough Vitamin D. On the other hand, they have less chance of developing skin cancer.
Sunbathing At Least Twice A Week Why Vitamin D Is So Important
Vitamin D is multifunctional and has a variety of important roles to play within the bodies metabolism. For example, it controls the Calcium and phosphate metabolism and is therefore important for the formation of bone and teeth.
Only a small percentage of Vitamin D comes from exogenous sources, the majority is synthesised in the skin.The Vitamin D-Synthesis requires sunlight . After hydroxylation in the liver 25-Hydroxyvitamin, D D) is excreted into the blood plasma. Its half-life is 15 days. After a second hydroxylation in the kidney, the bioactive form is produced.Moderate sun exposure is enough to maintain a sufficient level of Vitamin D in the body. It is accepted that exposure on the face and arms, legs or back, twice a week for 5-30 min is enough to produce the required amount of Vitamin D.
In a study with 562 men in the USA, the daily intake of Vitamin D has shown to have a positive impact on periodontal health. Therefore Vitamin D can have a protective function against progressive periodontal disease. An analysis of data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey indicated that, people with the highest Vitamin D level D showed 20% less bleeding compared to people with the lowest concentration.
Most important is sunlight. Try to get 15 min sunlight without sunscreen every day. What to do in the winter?
Vitamin D rich food:
Vitamin D Deficiency And Latitudinal Associations With Risks Of Cancer And Autoimmune Diseases
Interestingly, there is also a latitudinal association with increased risk of developing multiple sclerosis and cardiovascular disease . Rostand observed in 1979 that people who lived at higher latitudes in the United States, Europe, and Asia were more likely to have hypertension. It is well established that there is a latitudinal association with the prevalence of multiple sclerosis. People who were born below 35°N latitude and lived at or below that latitude for the first 10 years of their lives had decreased lifetime risks of developing multiple sclerosis, compared with those who were born above 35°N latitude . There is compelling evidence that this is attributable to a decrease in UVB light exposure. One study suggested that the seasonal variation in multiple sclerosis was 50% less in the summer, compared with that in the winter . Mahon et al and Ponsonby et al observed that increases in vitamin D intake were related to decreases in multiple sclerosis incidents.
Bodiwala et al reported that men who worked outdoors and had increased sun exposure throughout their lifetimes had a 35-y honeymoon period before they developed prostate cancer, compared with age-matched control subjects who had little sun exposure and began developing prostate cancer at the age of 53 y. Tuohimaa et al reported that the risk of prostate cancer was reduced by 50% with serum 25D concentrations of 50 nmol/L.
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Application Of Visible And Near Infrared Radiation For Skin Health
The efficacy of red, blue and near-infrared light treatments have been evaluated for wound healing, reduction in fine lines, wrinkles and improving dermal collagen density . In one study ultrasonography of skin samples before and after 30 treatments of red light and energizing light technology revealed substantial improvements in the dermal collagen matrix with increased thickness. Follow-up clinical photography revealed improvement changes in wrinkles and skin roughness .
The Pineal Gland And Sleep Disorder
The pineal gland sits behind the eyes and it can easily receive light that enters through the eyes. It plays an important role in circadian rhythms, and promotes restful sleep, by synthesizing large amounts of melatonin as the light fades in the evening. The melatonin is conjugated with sulfate and shipped out into the cerebrospinal fluid at night. In a paper published together with Wendy Morley, I have argued that melatonin supplies sulfate to the neurons in the brain at night, and that this supports the activities during sleep to break down and recycle cellular debris.27
A sulfotransferase enzyme is sharply upregulated during the daytime in the pineal gland, and it increases the amount of sulfate in the glycosaminoglycans in the intercellular spaces of the gland.28 This infers that sunlight catalyzes sulfate synthesis in the gland, and, indeed, the cells there express eNOS. The sulfate built up by day can be extracted from the matrix and conjugated to melatonin in the evening to maintain the brains supply of this critical nutrient.
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