Adults Under 65 Years Of Age
In line with the EFSA , the average vitamin C requirement in healthy adults is considered to be the vitamin C amount that compensates for the metabolic losses of vitamin C and ensures a fasting ascorbate plasma level of 50 µmol/l.
Based on the present data from studies with non-smoking men, metabolic losses of 50 mg/day are assumed as well as an absorption rate of 80% and an urinary excretion of 25% of the vitamin C intake. Taking this into account, the calculated average requirement in men is 91 mg/day. Considering a coefficient of variation of 10% , a recommended intake of about 110 mg/day for men is derived .
Calculation of the recommended intake of vitamin C for adults
As data on metabolic losses in women are not available, the vitamin C requirement in women is extrapolated from the requirement in men and in relation to their body weight, because body weight is considered to be an essential factor for gender-related differences in the pharmacokinetics of vitamin C. Taking into account their reference body weight, the average requirement in women is 77 mg/day. Assuming a coefficient of variation of 10% , the recommended intake for women is about 95 mg/day .
With intake levels according to the recommended intake for adults, the desirable plasma concentration of > 50 mol/l and saturation of immunocompetent cells is achieved .
Vitamin B12 Dosage: What Is The Proper Daily Amount
Vitamin B12, also known as cobalamin, is an essential vitamin for humans. Its vital for maintaining energy levels, metabolism, hormone balance, mood, digestion and skin health. But without enough of the nutrient, we can miss out on the many vitamin B12 benefits. In fact, being deficient in B12 can lead to major health issues, from improper growth and development to cognitive impairment. So what the proper vitamin B12 dosage?
Although a balanced diet including a variety of foods will generally supply enough vitamin B12 for most people, supplementation is sometimes necessary for certain age groups and circumstances or for those with underlying health conditions. Thats why its important to know what vitamin B12 dosage is right for your specific needs. How do you find out? Read on to learn all about vitamin B12 dosage recommendations and more.
The Side Effects Of Too Much Vitamin C
There are actually quite a few side effects related to excessive Vitamin C consumption. Your digestive tract will probably be the first thing to notice that something isnt right.
Common side effects include nausea, vomiting, heartburn, and esophagitis. You may also notice stomach cramps, diarrhea or intestinal obstruction.
However, you can also experience symptoms such as fatigue, headaches, feeling sleepy or insomnia. Flushed skin is also a symptom.
A more serious side effect is kidney stones. And the longer you consume 2,000 mg or more of Vitamin C each day, it increases your risk of experiencing significant side effects.
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Can You Take Too Much Vitamin C
The tolerable upper intake for adults is 2 grams of Vitamin C consuming more than that can result in diarrhea and other unpleasant GI disturbances, says Greaves. She admits that severe side effects from too much ascorbic acid are very rare, but you may experience some discomfort if you take too much. Its pretty much impossible to have a vitamin C overdose, but lets not test that out.
The real problem with taking more vitamin C than you need is that it all goes to waste. Up to 100 mg a day of vitamin C will get almost completely absorbed, says Francesco-Maria Serino, MD, PhD. Above 100 mg a day and the fraction of vitamin C absorbed is progressively smaller. If you take more than 1 gram of vitamin C per day, less than 50% is actually absorbed and its eliminated by the kidneys.
That literally means that a 500 mg vitamin C supplement mostly gets peed down the drain.
Mayo Clinic Q And A: How Much Vitamin D Do I Need
DEAR MAYO CLINIC: I have heard different recommendations from different sources regarding vitamin D. One doctor told my husband that everyone living in the Northern Hemisphere should take a vitamin D supplement every day, even in the summer. What do you recommend?
ANSWER: Understanding how much vitamin D you need can be confusing because there are different recommendations about how much vitamin D adults should get. Using the recommendations that fall on the low end, many adults dont get the amount of vitamin D they should. Because few foods contain vitamin D naturally, eating foods fortified with vitamin D and taking a supplement may be beneficial.
Vitamin D is important because it helps your body sustain normal levels of calcium and phosphorus. Because it works as a key that allows your body to absorb calcium, vitamin D plays a critical role in forming and maintaining healthy bones. It also helps keep your muscles, nerves and immune system healthy.
Research suggests that consistently getting enough vitamin D can significantly lower the risk for the bone-thinning disease osteoporosis. Low vitamin D also is associated with falls, multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, chronic pain, diabetes, high blood pressure, cardiovascular disease and some cancers. However, an association does not mean low vitamin D causes these conditions, or that taking a vitamin D supplement will adequately prevent or treat them.
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Common Nutrient Deficiencies: Know The Signs
Severe vitamin C deficiency may bring about scurvy, a condition that includes symptoms ranging from fatigue to depression, joint pain, poor wound healing, and bleeding gums. Though serious, scurvy and even vitamin C deficiency are rare in developed countries. Theres one exception: Smokers have a more-than-threefold-greater risk of vitamin C deficiency, according to research published in The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. This is likely because smoking causes greater vitamin C turnover in the body. Cigarette smoking increases free radicals in the body, which damages our cells antioxidants such as vitamin C counteract this damage but are depleted more quickly in people who smoke.
Side Effects Of Vitamin C Supplementation
Many studies have shown no significant adverse health effects to humans, from vitamin C supplementation. People who may experience some discomfort, are those who have:
- a history of kidney stone formation,
- iron overload,
- taken other drugs, as well.
Side effects may be diarrhea, gastrointestinal disturbances due to the osmotic effect of unabsorbed vitamin C, or mild nausea.
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Vitamins And Minerals For Older Adults
Vitamins help your body grow and work the way it should. There are 13 essential vitamins vitamins A, C, D, E, K, and the B vitamins .
Vitamins have different jobs to help keep the body working properly. Some vitamins help you resist infections and keep your nerves healthy, while others may help your body get energy from food or help your blood clot properly. By following the Dietary Guidelines, you will get enough of most of these vitamins from food.
Like vitamins, minerals also help your body function. Minerals are elements that our bodies need to function that can be found on the earth and in foods. Some minerals, like iodine and fluoride, are only needed in very small quantities. Others, such as calcium, magnesium, and potassium, are needed in larger amounts. As with vitamins, if you eat a varied diet, you will probably get enough of most minerals.
How Much Vitamin D Do You Need
Despite widespread assertions in the popular and scientific press that many Americans have a vitamin D deficiency, the term “deficiency” isn’t strictly accurate. The official definition of a vitamin deficiency means that specific health problems stem solely from the lack of a specific nutrient. An actual vitamin D deficiency results in bone disease, such as rickets, which is rare in the United States.
On the other hand, lower-than-optimal levels of specific vitamins, including vitamin D, may increase your risk of numerous health problems, even though they are not solely responsible for these problems. “Insufficiency” may be a better term for these lower levels than “vitamin D deficiency”.
So far, the most clearly established benefit of vitamin D is that it helps the body absorb calcium and therefore promotes healthy bones. However, a steady drumbeat of studies beginning in the 1980s started to build a case that low blood levels of D were connected with a variety of chronic health problems, leading to claims by a number of researchers that the RDA for D was way too low. The confusion and controversy surrounding optimal vitamin D intake and blood values prompted the U.S. and Canadian governments to request that the Institute of Medicine review the evidence on vitamin D and calcium and update the DRIs.
To learn more about the vitamins and minerals you need to stay healthy, read Making Sense of Vitamins and Minerals, a Special Health Report from Harvard Medical School.
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Do I Need A Vitamin C Supplement
As a general rule, it is always best to get your nutrients from food rather than pills. With that being said, taking a daily vitamin C supplement won’t cause you any harm and can bolster your RDA if you happen to fall short.
If you don’t think you’re getting enough vitamin C in your diet, don’t hesitate to supplement at the recommended dosages. At the same time, increase your intake of the following foods rich in vitamin C:
- Red pepper : 95 milligrams per 1/2-cup serving
- Orange juice: 90 milligrams per 3/4-cup serving
- Orange: 70 milligrams per one medium fruit
- Kiwi: 64 milligrams per one medium fruit
- Green pepper : 60 milligrams per 1/2-cup serving
- Broccoli : 51 milligrams per 1/2-cup serving
- Strawberries : 49 milligrams per 1/2-cup serving
- Brussel sprouts : 48 milligrams per 1/2-cup serving
- Tomato juice: 33 milligrams per 1/2-cup serving
- Cantaloupe: 29 milligrams per 1/2-cup serving
What Is The Evidence That Vitamin C Acts As An Antioxidant In Humans
The most conclusive evidence that vitamin C acts as an antioxidant in humans has come from supplementation studies using specific biomarkers of oxidative damage to lipids, DNA, and proteins. Because these specific oxidative biomarkers have only recently been developed and continue to be evaluated, only relatively few studies have investigated the effects on these biomarkers of supplementation with antioxidant micronutrients, including vitamin C.
Numerous studies in humans have investigated the effects on the oxidizability of LDL of vitamin C supplementation in combination with vitamin E or -carotene or both . Studies have been carried out in smokers , nonsmokers , and persons with hypercholesterolemia or cardiovascular disease . In all cases, a significant reduction in LDL oxidizability was observed. It is, however, difficult to determine the relative contribution of vitamin C in these studies because of the presence of the cosupplements, of which vitamin E appears to be the major contributor to protection of LDL. This is because vita-min E is the most abundant lipid-soluble antioxidant associated with LDL .
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Should I Take A Vitamin C Supplement
If you are eating a balanced diet, most likely you do not need to take a vitamin C supplement, says McGowan. Vitamin C is water-soluble meaning the body utilizes it but doesnt store it. For most healthy individuals, the body can only hold and use about 200 to 250 mg of vitamin C a day, and any excess is lost through urine, explains McGowan.
Despite this, you can overconsume vitamin C. This is most likely to occur with supplement use, so make sure your daily intake falls below the tolerable upper limit , or the maximum daily intake thats unlikely to result in negative health effects. That amount for a 1- to 3-year-old child is 400 mg, while its 650 mg for a 4- to 8-year-old child, 1,200 for a 9- to 12-year-old child, and 1,800 mg for a 14- to 18-year-old teenager. The UL for an adult is 2,000 mg. Keep in mind that if you take a multivitamin, youre getting vitamin C there, too dont forget to add that amount to your total supplemental intake.
Which Foods Are Best For Vitamin C
Most fruits and vegetables contain some vitamin C however, certain varieties are particularly valuable sources of the nutrient. These are:
Vegetables: Peppers, tomatoes, potatoes , and green vegetables such as broccoli and brussels sprouts.
Fruit: Oranges and orange juice, other citrus fruits, strawberries, and blackcurrants.
Its important to be aware that processing and/or cooking can reduce or destroy the vitamin C in a food. Boiling vegetables is especially harmful. So try light cooking and eating some of your fruit and veg raw for optimum vitamin C levels.
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How Much Vitamin D Is Too Much
Vitamin D toxicity is rare but it can happen if you take extreme doses of vitamin D supplements. The biggest concern with vitamin D toxicity is an accumulation of calcium in your blood. This condition, known as hypercalcemia, can cause poor appetite, nausea, vomiting, weakness, and kidney concerns. Taking 50,000 IU a day of vitamin D for several months has been shown to cause toxicity. This level is many times higher than any recommended allowance. Always talk to your doctor before taking extreme serving sizes beyond what’s recommended.
Which Disease Is Caused Due To Lack Of Vitamin E
Vitamin E has powerful antioxidant and anti-inflammatory actions. So, vitamin E boosts the immune system and also it may protect against heart disease, some types of cancer, cognitive decline, and eye disorders.
May prevent coronary heart disease
Vitamin E may prevent heart disease, as it inhibits oxidation of LDL-cholesterol which causes atherosclerosis. Moreover, vitamin E may prevent the formation of blood clots. There are studies that have linked high vitamin E intake to lower rates of heart disease.
May prevent cancer
The antioxidant properties of vitamin E may also protect from some types of cancer. Vitamin E can enhance the immune system and block the formation of carcinogenic compounds. It seems that vitamin E may be beneficial against breast cancer, colon cancer, and prostate cancer.
In many cases, doses up to 400 IU for many years have been provided to patients without significant side effects.
May protect good vision
It seems that nutrients with antioxidant functions, such as vitamin E are good for preventing or even treating age-related macular degeneration and cataracts.
You can see the list of foods high in beta-carotene, along with other foods high in other carotenoids here.
May delay the onset of Alzheimers disease or dementia
Vitamin E for elastic face & shiny face
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Is Taking A Huge Dose Of Vitamin C Bad For Me
Vitamin C is an important nutrient, but as the old saying goes too much of a good thing can be a bad thing.
After taking too much vitamin C, you may experience symptoms such as:
So how much vitamin C is too much?
For adults, the daily upper limit of vitamin C is 2,000 mg. For teens, it’s 1,800 mg. For children, the upper limit depends on age, and it ranges from 400 to 1,200 mg per day.
In addition, vitamin C is water-soluble, making it hard for your body to store it with excess being secreted in your urine. So even if you’re adult and can handle the 1,000 mg in each vitamin C packet or pill, just know that your body can’t absorb more than about 400 mg. This means that most of the vitamin C in that supplement you’re taking just goes down your toilet .
All this to say, however, that getting the recommended amount of vitamin C is still a critical step in staying healthy, as this vitamin plays many important roles in your body. But, you don’t need to take a supplement to make that happen.
Is It Ok To Take 1000 Milligrams Of Vitamin C Daily
Your body needs vitamin C in order to heal skin wounds, build strong bones and teeth and synthesize the collagen needed for making cartilage and blood vessels. As an antioxidant, vitamin C may also lower your risk of cancer, high blood pressure, heart disease and age-related macular degeneration. It’s best to fulfill your vitamin C requirement with fresh fruits and vegetables, says the Linus Pauling Institute, though some people may benefit from supplementation. Vitamin C supplements are available in liquid, tablet, powdered and capsule form. Do not begin using vitamin C supplements until you’ve first talked to your doctor.
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Effects Of Mega Doses Of Vitamin C
According to a study, researchers have treated cancer patients with high dosages of vitamin C, through IVC therapy . Scientists gave cancer patients up to 100g of vitamin C a day! Thats 100,000 mg. 100 times more vitamin C than a dosage of 1,000 mg or 100,000 times the recommended daily intake of vitamin C Thats a huge dose. So, what happened to these patients?
Regarding cancer, researchers observed:
- improvement in the quality of life,
- improved tolerance of conventional therapy,
- deterioration in clinical condition, in the absence of vitamin C dosage.
The side effects of mega dosages of vitamin C seem to be minimal, though. Patients experienced symptoms of Jarisch-Herxheimer reaction. This is a reaction of the body to endotoxins produced by the necrosis of harmful cells. Fever, chills, strong body odor, and pimples may be other side effects.
Dont forget that these side effects happened to cancer patients, after megadoses of vitamin C. Symptoms resolved after 2 to 3 hours, after injection with vitamin C.
On the other hand, therapy with high dosages of vitamin C may:
- stabilize cancer,
- have anti tumor activity in some cases,
- help patients regain strength, even walking again