Regulation Of Ascorbate Content
As an essential antioxidant, regulation of the ascorbate content is closely related with abiotic stresses that normally cause oxidative stress. High light in particular is translated into a ROS burst caused by an increased photoreduction and photorespiration. This, in turn, leads to increased ascorbate biosynthesis in order to detoxify these ROS . Low light, in contrast, causes a reduction of ascorbate. For example, Arabidopsis plants grown in continuous dark for 2 days only contained 20% of ascorbate relative to plants grown in light .
Other genes involved in the regulation of ascorbate levels are AMR1 and ERF98 . AMR1 encodes an F-Box protein that represses the expression of virtually all the SW genes, particularly the expression of GME and GGP. Interestingly, this negative regulator of the pathway is barely expressed under high light conditions, pointing out the importance of the de novo biosynthesis of ascorbate in the response to light . In contrast, ERF98 is a positive regulator of the pathway since overexpression of this gene increase the content of ascorbate by enhancing the expression of genes of the SW pathway, in particular GMP, GGP and L-GalDH. Further analysis indicated that ERF98 can directly bind the promoter of the GMP gene , supporting its regulatory role of the SW pathway.
Fruits High In Vitamin C
Vitamin C is one of the most common nutrients. It has powerful antioxidant properties and is needed for wound healing, repairing tissue, iron absorption, scurvy prevention and protecting heart health. The amount of vitamin C you need will depend on your age and gender, ranging from 40 mg to 120 mg per day.
Just to be safe, I usually get the majority of my vitamin c from REAL berry-sourced supplements . On top of that though, here are the fruits that I focus on to top off my vitamin c needs.
It is commonly thought that citrus fruits such as oranges and lemons are the only sources of vitamin C, but this is not the case. There are in fact lots of fruits and vegetables you can eat that will provide you with significant quantities of vitamin C.
Red And Yellow Bell Peppers
Red and yellow bell peppers are super rich in antioxidants, which help in maintaining eye and heart health. They also contain high amounts of vitamin C, which boosts collagen level and may help to prevent lung cancer too.
Bell peppers can be amazingly high in Vitamin C content.
So, next time you’re looking for ways to add to your diet that are naturally high in vitamin C, try one of these options instead of using the regular orange.
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Vitamin C Side Effects
There isnt sound evidence that too much vitamin C can cause severe adverse effects on our health. Sometimes, people taking high doses of this vitamin can experience gastrointestinal problems, such as:
- abdominal cramps
There are some concerns that vitamin C overdose can lead to:
- kidney stone formation
- low levels of vitamin B12 and copper
- other serious health problems
Still, more research needs to be done to confirm these claims. However, the FNB developed Tolerable Upper Intake Levels for this vitamin.
Signs And Symptoms Of Vitamin C Deficiency
Vitamin C is an essential nutrient that must be consumed regularly to prevent deficiency.
While deficiency is relatively rare in developed countries due to the availability of fresh produce and the addition of vitamin C to certain foods and supplements, it still affects roughly 7% of adults in the US .
The most common risk factors for vitamin C deficiency are poor diet, alcoholism, anorexia, severe mental illness, smoking and dialysis .
While symptoms of severe vitamin C deficiency can take months to develop, there are some subtle signs to watch out for.
Here are the 15 most common signs and symptoms of vitamin C deficiency.
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The Best Food Sources Of Vitamin C
The recommended daily intake for vitamin C is 90 mg for men and 75 mg for women .
Smokers are advised to consume an additional 35 mg per day, as tobacco reduces the absorption of vitamin C and increases the bodys use of the nutrient .
Very little vitamin C is needed to prevent scurvy. Just 10 mg per day is enough, which is roughly the amount found in one tablespoon of fresh bell pepper or the juice of half a lemon (
- Acerola cherry: 2,740% of the RDI
- Guava: 628% of the RDI
- Blackcurrants: 338% of the RDI
- Sweet red pepper: 317% of the RDI
- Kiwifruit: 273% of the RDI
- Lychee: 226% of the RDI
- Lemon: 187% of the RDI
- Orange: 160% of the RDI
- Strawberry: 149% of the RDI
- Papaya: 144% of the RDI
- Broccoli: 135% of the RDI
- Parsley: 133% of the RDI
Vitamin C rapidly breaks down when exposed to heat, so raw fruits and vegetables are better sources than cooked ones .
Since the body does not store large amounts of vitamin C, it is recommended to eat fresh fruits and vegetables every day.
Supplementing with vitamin C has not been found to be toxic, but taking more than 2,000 mg per day may cause abdominal cramps, diarrhea and nausea, as well as increase the risk of developing oxalate kidney stones in men .
Additionally, doses over 250 mg per day may interfere with tests designed to detect blood in the stool or stomach and should be discontinued two weeks before testing .
A Bonus Potential Benefit Of Vitamin C Younger Healthier Skin
There is also a case for vitamin C keeping you looking young and vital. Per a review published in August 2017 in the journal Nutrients, vitamin C helps stimulate the production of collagen a protein that helps keep your skin firm and full. Diets rich in vitamin C are likely to have other positive benefits for the skin too. Some benefits noted in the study included reducing the formation of scars, preventing wrinkles, and maintaining overall health of your skin.
While vitamin C creams and serums are available as well, the review study found that delivery of vitamin C into the skin via topical application remains challenging. The study noted any potential benefits of applying vitamin C to the skin were creams that also contain vitamin E.
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Vegetables And Herbs That Provide Vitamin C
Here are some of the foods recommended by the NIH that contain vitamin C, as well as flavonoids and bioflavonoids that work with vitamin C. All recommended daily values are found in the NIH Dietary Supplement Label Database. Below, find their vitamin C content and DVs:
- Red and Green Chili Peppers One red chili pepper contains 64.7 milligrams of vitamin C, or slightly more than 100 percent of the DV.
- Bell Peppers A 1-cup portion of chopped red bell peppers has 190 mg of vitamin C, or 211 percent of the DV.
- Parsley and Thyme One teaspoon of thyme, for example, has 1.3 mg of vitamin C, or 1.4 percent of the DV.
- Dark Green Leafy Vegetables This includes garden cress, kale, mustard greens, Brussels sprouts, cauliflower, and broccoli. For example, 1 stalk of broccoli has 134 mg of vitamin C, or 148 percent of the DV.
- Potatoes 1 medium-sized potato contains 42 mg of vitamin C, or 70 percent of the DV.
Add The Fruit To The Blender
Add ALL the fruit youve just cut to the carafe of your blender. I add the fruit first because its softer and acts as a medium for blending the ice and bananas.
Add the ice to the carafe. If you were to add the ice first, youre going to have to shift and scrape down the smoothie more often than if you add the ice after the softer fruits. Top with a sliced banana- hello, potassium bomb- it can either be raw or frozen, like mine is.
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Immune Building Pantry Dishes: Savory Tomato Basil Soup
Without vitamin C, your body literally falls apart. According to the Science History Institute, back when vitamin C deficiency was a more prevalent issue, it caused peoples gums to bleed and teeth to fall out. The deficiency also caused internal hemorrhaging that eventually led to death. When physicians realized citrus fruits had a role in preventing scurvy, ships were stocked with lime juice.
Dont worry the chances of you getting scurvy in todays age are slim to none. Its something, at least in developed nations, that we really dont think about because vitamin C is in so many of the foods we eat daily. There are also plenty of vitamin C supplements out there, but Moore recommends getting nutrients from whole foods. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration does not regulate dietary supplements, and the agency notes theyre different from drugs in that they arent intended to treat, diagnose, prevent, or cure diseases.
Studies on vitamin C supplements are limited, but research has shown that ingesting foods with naturally occurring ascorbic acid is preferable to supplements, according to the Office of Dietary Supplements. And if youre already getting vitamin C from food, taking supplements may or may not be beneficial because any excess vitamin C is excreted from the body in the urine.
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Foods High In Vitamin C
1. Blackcurrants 160mg per 80g serving or 200mg per 100g
Blackcurrants are small, round, sour-tasting, deep purple-black berries which typically need some sort of sweetness added to make them more palatable. Just one 80g serving provides almost 200% of your RDA of vitamin C, and they also contain some vitamin A, calcium and iron. Blackcurrants can be easily used to make a jam or sorbet.
Discover eight ways to cook with blackcurrants.
2. Red pepper 100mg per 80g serving or 126mg per 100g
Red peppers are very versatile and can be eaten in salads or as a crudité with a dip, such as hummus or guacamole, or they can be used in soups, stews and stir-fries. Half a large red pepper contains just over the RDA of vitamin C, and also has a good amount of vitamins A, E and K as well as B6, folate and fibre.
Discover more recipes using red peppers.
3. Kiwi fruit 47mg per 80g serving or 59mg per 100g
The kiwi fruit is a bright green, tropical fruit, typically eaten raw. Simply peel and chop or cut in half and scoop out with a teaspoon. It can also be added to fruit salad, used to top yogurt or in a smoothie. A single kiwi contains just over 50% of the RDA of vitamin C and they’re also a good source of vitamin K and fibre.
4. Guava 126mg per 55g serving or 230mg per 100g serving
5. Green pepper – 96mg per 80g serving or 120mg per 100g
Try using green peppers in a healthy stir-fry dish.
6. Orange 73mg per 140g serving or 52mg per 100g
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What Foods Are High In Vitamin C And Fiber
Spinach with Mustard
Despite the fact that heating reduces vitamin C concentration in foods, one cup of cooked mustard greens contains 117 milligrams of vitamin C, or 130 percent of the daily value . Mustard spinach, like many dark, leafy greens, is rich in vitamin A, potassium, calcium, manganese, fiber, and folate.
Purple Passion Fruit Juice
Purple passion fruit juice may not be the richest source of vitamin C, but its a good one. Notably, one cup of this drink can provide you with 118% of this vitamins DV. Whats more, it is high in other vitamins as well, including vitamin B2riboflavin, vitamin A, and niacin. Its also a great source of potassium and magnesium.
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Persistent Iron Deficiency Anemia
Vitamin C and iron deficiency anemia often occur together.
Signs of iron deficiency anemia include paleness, fatigue, trouble breathing during exercise, dry skin and hair, headache and spoon-shaped fingernails .
Low levels of vitamin C may contribute to iron deficiency anemia by reducing the absorption of iron from plant-based foods and negatively affecting iron metabolism (
If iron deficiency anemia persists for a long time with no obvious causes, it may be wise to check your vitamin C levels.
Summary Vitamin C deficiency may increase the risk of iron deficiency anemia by reducing iron absorption and increasing the likelihood of bleeding.
Is Rice A Good Source Of Vitamin C And Fiber
Compared to maize, wheat, and potatoes, raw, long-grain white rice is a reasonably excellent source of calories, carbohydrates, calcium, iron, thiamin, pantothenic acid, folate, and vitamin E. It lacks vitamin C, vitamin A, beta-carotene, and lutein+zeazanthin, as well as a significant amount of fiber.
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May Reduce Your Risk Of Chronic Disease
Vitamin C is a powerful antioxidant that can strengthen your bodys natural defenses .
Antioxidants are molecules that boost the immune system. They do so by protecting cells from harmful molecules called free radicals.
When free radicals accumulate, they can promote a state known as oxidative stress, which has been linked to many chronic diseases .
Studies show that consuming more vitamin C can increase your blood antioxidant levels by up to 30%. This helps the bodys natural defenses fight inflammation .
Vitamin C is a strong antioxidant that can boost your blood antioxidant levels. This may help reduce the risk of chronic diseases like heart disease.
Approximately one-third of American adults have high blood pressure .
High blood pressure puts you at risk of heart disease, the leading cause of death globally .
Studies have shown that vitamin C may help lower blood pressure in both those with and without high blood pressure.
An animal study found that taking a vitamin C supplement helped relax the blood vessels that carry blood from the heart, which helped reduce blood pressure levels .
Moreover, an analysis of 29 human studies found that taking a vitamin C supplement reduced systolic blood pressure by 3.8 mmHg and diastolic blood pressure by 1.5 mmHg, on average, in healthy adults.
In adults with high blood pressure, vitamin C supplements reduced systolic blood pressure by 4.9 mmHg and diastolic blood pressure by 1.7 mmHg, on average .
What Is The Recommended Daily Allowance Of Vitamin C
Its pretty much impossible to overdose on vitamin C, and its almost equally difficult to be vitamin C deficient, unless you live somewhere with little access to fruits and vegetables. Moore says at the very minimum your body needs 10 mg of vitamin C per day, but the recommended daily allowance will vary depending on age, gender, age, and lifestyle choices like smoking.
According to an earlier report published by the U.S. Food and Nutrition Board, infants up to 6 months old should get at least 40 mg, children between 4 and 8 years should get 25 mg, teens between ages 14 and 18 should have around 75 mg for boys and 65 mg for girls, and among people ages 19 and older, the RDA is 90 mg for men and 75 mg for women. Some people need extra vitamin C, like smokers, who should get an additional 35 mg per day. Pregnant women need 85 mg, and lactating women require 120 mg of vitamin C.
As a reminder, Dr. Wald says the RDA is the minimum amount needed to prevent vitamin C deficiency, and isnt necessarily representative of the ideal vitamin C value each person needs.
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Pour And Drink To Your Health
Go ahead and pour your smoothies into glass jars. This recipe will make enough to serve a family of 4 two cups of smoothie or 2 really generous servings. I make this vitamin C Bomb Smoothie once a day- usually in the afternoon- and serve it to my family.
Its not only healthy and preventive, but it gives us an energy boost so we can finish our school and work day. Its best to drink it just after blending, but I have been known to make it the evening before a busy day and store it in the fridge. I dont recommend storing it for more than 12 hours, though. The vitamins wont be as potent as when freshly blended.
Some really smart dude said, Let food be thy medicine, and- even though its a drink- this smoothie surely fits the bill. In this time of caution, give your family a boost of Vitamin C. Share this with your friends and be sure to pin the recipe for your smoothie.
Collagen Synthesis For A Youthful Skin
Collagen is an important protein that plays a vital role in the production of connective tissues. Connective tissue is found in abundance in hair, nail, skin, and other body organs. The presence of sufficient vitamin C facilitates the production of collagen.
Collagen helps in maintaining the elasticity of the skin, which tends to decrease with age. Adequate collagen is essential for firm and healthy skin tissues. In addition, vitamin C is a popular beauty ingredient in many cosmetic products for a glowing and even skin tone.
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Fatigue And Poor Mood
Two of the earliest signs of vitamin C deficiency are fatigue and poor mood (
While fatigue and irritability may be some of the first symptoms to appear, they typically resolve after just a few days of adequate intake or within 24 hours of high-dose supplementation .
Summary Signs of fatigue and poor mood can appear even with low-to-normal levels of vitamin C, but they quickly turn around with adequate vitamin C intake.