Influence Of The Dairy Cow And Its Diet
In 1966, reported that concentrations of vitamin B12 in milk were highly variable and were affected by cow breed, season, cobalt supply, and feeding regimens. These authors observed that inclusion of oat silage increased milk concentrations of vitamin B12 as compared with corn silage, but details on the studied feeding regimens or intake are scarce. More recently, in a study comparing four production systems in France, mainly characterized by their forage system and altitude , milk concentrations of vitamin B12 appeared to be related to the composition of the rations. Overall, increasing corn silage intake increased milk concentration of vitamin B12 . Concentrations of vitamin B12 were greater in milk of cows receiving a daily supplement of 25 mg of cobalt compared with an unsupplemented diet, but further increase of daily cobalt supply from 25 to 75 mg had no effect on milk concentrations of the vitamin . A study conducted on 15 commercial dairy farms in QuÃ©bec, Canada, showed that vitamin B12 content in milk of cows during their first two months of lactation varied greatly among farms: from 2.0 to 3.7 ng/g, in spite of small differences in supplemental cobalt among herds . Recordings of calculated composition of the rations and analytical measurements were collected, but they did not allow identifying dietary factors associated with changes in milk concentrations of the vitamin. The number of farms involved was possibly too limited for such survey.
Potential Benefits Of Functional Foods Of Animal Origin
There are several encouraging facts for the use of functional foods of animal origin. The major reason would be that these products can serve nutritious food to the growing population particularly in the developing countries . The use of hormones such as BST has led to increase in the output of milk from cow, increasing the income of farmers. From the consumers point of view, BST has no risk on the health, and it gets degraded in the body since it is a protein . Transgenic technology can be used to produce milk and egg with less fat and more vitamins and minerals, which are essential. Similarly, as per consumers need, it is possible to incorporate the specific nutrients in functional foods . Animal pharming helps in the synthesis of pharmaceuticals from milk and meat .
Bioactive Components And Their Sources
Bioactive components of food are defined as elements that affect biological processes or substrates and hence have an impact on body function or condition and ultimately health.32 Bioactive components in human milk come from a variety of sources some are produced and secreted by the mammary epithelium, some are produced by cells carried within the milk,33 while others are drawn from maternal serum and carried across the mammary epithelium by receptor-mediated transport. Further, the secretion of the milk fat globule into milk by the mammary epithelium carries with it a diverse collection of membrane-bound proteins and lipids into the milk.34 Together these methods produce the variety of bioactive components in human milk. For example, in lactating women, antigen-specific B cells home to the mammary gland, where polymeric immunoglobulin receptors transport sIgA into the lumen of the duct.35 An alternative example is vascular endothelial growth factor , which is found at concentrations significantly higher in milk than maternal serum, indicating a mammary gland source.36,37 Understanding the sources of bioactive components of milk also helps to explain the variability in milk concentrations that are observed following maternal use of specific medications .
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Antioxidant Properties Of Milk
Antioxidants are chemical substances that can neutralize and scavenge the free radicals, which are continuously produced in the body . Uncontrolled free radicals in body can lead to oxidative stresses, which have been implicated in the breakdown of vital biochemical compounds, lipids, protein, DNA, diabetes, accelerated aging, carcinogenesis, and cardiovascular diseases . The anticipated carcinogenicity of synthetic antioxidants such as butylated hydroxyl anisole, butylated hydroxyl toluene, and tertiary butylatedhydroxyquinone has led to the increased usage of natural antioxidants for the stabilization of foods. Functional foods have several health-promoting substances beyond traditional nutrients. Change in lifestyle has a great deal of impact on disease patterns, and about 20-30 years ago, infectious diseases were more than non-communicable diseases, but now the non-communicable/metabolic diseases are on the higher side. In the current scenario, healthy/functional food should be selected to avoid and/or minimize non-communicable diseases, such as diabetes, cancers, and cardiovascular diseases . Demand for food containing natural antioxidants is increasing across the globe. Large numbers of food and dairy products are being supplemented with natural antioxidants .
Major antioxidant molecules in milk .
Intestinal Maturation And Repair: Epidermal Growth Factor
Found in both amniotic fluid and breast milk,38–40 EGF is critical to the maturation and healing of the intestinal mucosa. EGF is resistant to low pH and digestive enzymes, allowing it to pass through the stomach to the intestine, where it stimulates the enterocyte to increase DNA synthesis, cell division, absorbance of water and glucose, and protein synthesis.41,42 There are multiple protective mechanisms of action for EGF in the infant intestine, including inhibition of programmed cell death, and correcting alterations in intestinal and liver tight junction proteins induced by pro-inflammatory TNF-.43 Heparin-binding growth factor is a member of the EGF family, and the primary growth factor responsible for damage resolution following hypoxia, ischemia-reperfusion injury, hemorrhagic shock/resuscitation injury, and necrotizing enterocolitis.44 EGF is highest in early milk and decreases over lactation.45,46 The average EGF level in colostrum is 2000-fold higher and in mature milk is 100-fold higher than in maternal serum.41 Further, preterm milk contains higher levels of EGF than term milk.45,46
Why You Need Vitamin D3
A deficiency of vitamin D can have serious consequences in the body. Vitamin D is vital for these reasons:
1. Bone Health
Doctors discovered vitamin D when they were studying rickets, a children’s bone disorder. Today rickets is rare, but vitamin D is still needed for bone health. It’s especially important for women past menopause, who are at risk of osteoporosis. Vitamin D is also used to treat a more serious bone condition called osteomalacia . Vitamin D allows the body to absorb calcium. Without vitamin D, the body uses only a small percentage of the calcium in food.
2. Anti-Cancer Properties
Higher levels of vitamin D in the blood are associated with lower levels of some cancers, including colorectal,prostate, and pancreatic. In animal studies, vitamin D was associated with fewer tumors and slower growth of tumors. Clinical trials in humans suggest that vitamin D may not prevent cancer but may slow its progress.
3. Brain Health
Low levels of vitamin D may be a risk factor for various forms of dementia, including Alzheimer’s disease. Animal studies and cell studies have shown a connection, but the results of clinical trials have been mixed. Further research is needed.
What Are The Main Nutrients Found In Milk
Milk is particularly nutrient-rich, which makes sense when you consider the fact that its made to feed babies.
Some of the main nutrients found in milk are calcium, phosphorus, and vitamin D, making a particularly great bone-building team.
Calcium is also the most abundant mineral found in the human body, primarily in our bones and teeth.
This is why milk is often marketed to parents for their children to ensure they get sufficient amounts of calcium for their quickly growing bones and teeth.
Its also got plenty of high-quality proteins, which are great for building lean muscle.
Its an excellent source of B vitamins for energy and vitamin A for healthy immune systems.
To break it down more accurately, one cup of whole milk provides 10% or more of your recommended daily allowance of:
Milk is especially recommended in some countries due to the quantities of calcium, potassium, B12, and vitamin D that can be found in milk.
These considered nutrients of concern since they are lacking in many diets and can be difficult to source in large quantities elsewhere.
However, the nutrient list doesnt end there because milk is also a great magnesium source, which is also essential for healthy bone growth.
Milk is also rich in zinc and thiamine.
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Dairy Is Packed With Nutritional Value
Many people know dairy foods are an important source of nutrients for growing children and teens. Milk and other dairy foods, however, are great sources of protein, calcium and vitamins for people in all walks of life, including adults, seniors and athletes. Dairy products are loaded with essential vitamins and minerals, including carbohydrates, protein, calcium, phosphorus, potassium, vitamins A, D, B12, riboflavin and niacin.
Just one 8-ounce serving of milk has 8 grams of protein, which builds and repairs muscle tissue . One serving of milk also meets the daily values for the following nutrients :
- Calcium : Helps build and maintain strong bones and teeth
- Riboflavin : Supports body growth, red blood cell production and metabolism
- Phosphorus : Strengthens bones
- Vitamin D : Helps promote the absorption of calcium
- Pantothenic Acid : Helps convert food into energy
- Potassium : Regulates fluid balance and helps maintain normal blood pressure
- Vitamin A : Promotes good vision and healthy skin
- Niacin : Promotes proper circulation
Types of dairy milk
Using various straining and mixing techniques, milk can be made into a variety of products. Before milk is bottled, all of the fat is removed and added back at specific levels to make different fat-percentage variations of milk. No matter which milk-fat percentage you choose, they all contain the same essential nutrients including protein, vitamin D and calcium.
Dairys health benefits
Researchers have also found:
Do I Need Vitamin D Supplements In Addition To Eating High Vitamin D Foods
That depends on how much vitamin D you are getting from your food.
If youre vegan, vegetarian, or someone who doesnt regularly eat dairy products or fatty fish, it may be difficult for you to hit your daily recommended allowance. In that case, you may want to explore vitamin D supplements.
Vitamin D supplements come in two forms: D2 and D3. Each is a type of vitamin D, just from a different source. Vitamin D2 comes from plant products, and D3 is commonly from fatty fish like salmon or tuna. Youre more likely to see vitamin D3 as a supplement as its more effective at upping vitamin D levels than D2 .
Available over-the-counter vitamin D3 supplements come in various doses, including 400 IU, 800 IU, 1000 IU, and 2000 IU.
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Selection For The Growth Of Beneficial Organisms: Oligosaccharides
The human milk oligosaccharides range from 3 to 32 sugars in size, and differ in composition from those of any other mammal.23,24 Though non-nutritive to the infant, HMOS constitute a remarkable quantity of human milk, similar to the quantity of total protein. These structures are synthesized glycosyltransferases, enzymes that also synthesize similar structures in other human secretions and on mucosal surfaces. The HMOS are prebiotic agents that selectively encourage the growth of beneficial organisms. In addition, the HMOS and their protein conjugates are recognized as pathogen-binding inhibitors that function as soluble decoy receptors for pathogens that have an affinity for binding to oligosaccharide receptors expressed on the infants intestinal surface. Mothers vary in the specific structures of HMOS in their milk as a result of genetic differences similar to blood group types.23–25 This variation in HMOS composition, unlike blood group types, does not create incompatability, so that all mothers may be considered universal donors. Rather, the variation in HMOS composition among mothers is thought to promote human survival as pathogens differ in their affinity for binding to specific oligosaccharides. Protection by some forms of HMOS but not others has been shown in relation to diarrhea caused by specific pathogens23,24 and HIV.152 The apparent differences in lactose and HMOS composition of preterm milk requires further investigation.25,153
Transfer Of Living Protection And Programming: Cells Of Human Milk
Human milk contains a variety of cells, including macrophages, T cells, stem cells, and lymphocytes.87–93 In early lactation, the breastfed infant may consume as many as 1010 maternal leukocytes per day. The relative quantity of these cells differs among mothers and is reported to differ in the milk of infants who develop allergy.87 About 80% of the cells in early milk are breast milk macrophages, which originate as peripheral blood monocytes that exit the bloodstream and migrate into milk through the mammary epithelium. Phagocytosis of human milk components transforms these monocytes into potent breast milk macrophages with unique functional features, including the ability to differentiate into dendritic cells that stimulate infant T-cell activity.89,93 This capability provides broadly powerful protection against pathogens while stimulating development of the infants own immune system. In women infected with HIV-1 and HTLV-1, however, the activity of these cells unfortunately enables mother to infant viral transmission . Stem cells have also been identified in human milk 88,90 their function is under investigation.
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May Reduce Cancer Risk
Because vitamin D plays a major role in healthy cell division, development, and growth, its thought that it may also play a role in preventing the growth of cancer cells.
Research that looked at vitamin D levels and cancer risk in 2,300 women over the age of 55 found that blood levels greater than 40 ng/ml were associated with a 67% lower risk of all types of cancer .
Furthermore, Australian scientists who followed 3,800 adults for 20 years found the same benefit for breast and colon cancer, but not all types of cancer .
Though these studies looked only at vitamin D levels and not how the vitamin was obtained, a review of studies investigating the link between dairy milk and cancer found that it was protective against colorectal, bladder, stomach, and breast cancer (
- whole milk : 98 IU, 24% of the DV
- 2% milk : 105 IU, 26% of the DV
- 1% milk : 98 IU, 25% of the DV
- nonfat milk : 100 IU, 25% of the DV
- raw cows milk: trace amounts, 0% of the DV
- human milk: 10 IU, 2% of the DV
- goats milk: 29 IU, 7% of the DV
- soy milk : 107 IU, 25% of the DV
- almond milk : 98 IU, 25% of the DV
- unfortified milk alternatives: 0 IU, 0% of the DV
Milk thats not fortified with vitamin D, as well as human breast milk, are very low in the vitamin, so those who drink these unfortified milks should try to get their vitamin D from oily fish or a supplement.
The risk of getting too much vitamin D from fortified milk is extremely low.
What Other Food Products Have Vitamin D
As weve highlighted already, milk is an excellent source of vitamin D. Its also affordable, accessible, and full of other nutrients as well, such as calcium.
Since each serving of milk only contains about 100 to 180 IU of vitamin D, youll probably need additional food sources to meet the daily recommended 600-800 IU intake .
Experts agree a varied diet rich in foods with vitamin D is the best way to ensure youre meeting the daily requirement. Here are some everyday food products and how much vitamin D each contains :
- Cod liver oil, one tablespoon: 1,360 IU
- Salmon , cooked, three ounces: 570 IU
- Trout , farmed, cooked, three ounces: 645 IU
- Mushrooms, white, raw, sliced, exposed to UV light, ½ cup: 366 IU
- Egg, one large, with yolk: 44 IU
- Liver, beef, braised, three ounces: 42 IU
- Tuna fish , canned in water, drained, three ounces: 40 IU
- Sardines , canned in oil, drained, two sardines: 46 IU
- Cheese, cheddar, one ounce: 12 IU
- Ready-to-eat cereal fortified with vitamin D, one serving: 8 IU
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Vitamins & Minerals In Milk
This page describes the Vitamins and Minerals present in milk, and the Effects of Heat Treatments and Light Exposure on the Vitamin and Mineral Content in Milk. A description of the nutritional function of vitamins and minerals is provided on the Nutritional Components in Milk page in the Nutrition Facts section. For more details on the vitamins and minerals in milk, see references by Flynn et al. , Fox and McSweeney , Holt , and Öste et al. .
Blood Pressure And Heart Health
A higher potassium intake and a lower sodium intake are important for of cardiovascular disease, according to the AHA.
In 2014, scientists published their findings after looking at the data of more than 90,000 postmenopausal women. Around 25% of the women who consumed the most potassium had a 21% lower risk of any type of stroke and a 27% lower risk of ischemic stroke.
However, the saturated fat in full fat dairy products can increase the risk of atherosclerosis and heart disease. For this reason, people at risk of stroke or cardiovascular disease should opt for skim or low fat milk.
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Studies Of Human Milk Composition
A Medline search using only the phrase human milk composition reveals a steady increase in publications since the 1960s, with new components still being identified in human milk, and the functionality of those components under active investigation in many laboratories worldwide. Many studies of human milk composition have been conducted in diverse populations using varied collection, storage and testing methods. The gold standard of milk collection involves sampling of all milk expressed over 24-hours, with collection on multiple occasions from the same individuals over time.10,11 This method, however, can be costly, limiting the number of participants. Alternatively, studies of milk composition can standardize collection at a specific time of day by emptying the entire breast, avoiding collection from a breast that was used for nursing within the past 2-3 hours, with collection on multiple occasions from the same individuals over time.12 However, most published studies involve non-standardized collection from donors to milk banks whose milk is collected at different times of day, at different timings within a feed or at diverse stages of lactation. Studies of human milk composition also vary in their attention to storage or treatment conditions, such as the number of freeze-thaw cycles, duration of storage, or pasteurization, which may sometimes explain differing study results.